Coarse-grained model of protein molecules have been developed to understand protein folding mechanism. In this article, we review our coarse-grained model developed to understand association-dissociation dynamics of protein complex and discuss protein association path and an intermediate state.
Low temperatures below 1 K are much more easily achieved by magnetic refrigeration because of the simple construction, compared to the mainstream 3He–4He dilution refrigeration technique. Ytterbium (Yb)-based compounds with a giant specific heat around 0.1 K have attracted much attention as magnetic refrigerants. We measured thermodynamic properties and demonstrated the magnetic refrigeration down to well below 1 K by switching off the magnetic field applied for the sample in the quasi-adiabatic environments. We show that geometrical frustration or heavy mass of electrons play the crucial roles in the refrigeration.