The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanics of Kendo activity, and to compare the striking technique of male Kendo players with that of female Kendo players. A force platform was used together with 16mm cine camera to investigate synchronously the mechanics of step-in motion during the striking movement in Kendo activity. The records of the force components of foot impact on the floor of the male and femal Kendo players were obtained from the step-in motion during striking movement. Subsequently, the records were corresponded with the body movements shown on the 16mm film. The subjects for this study were 16 males,21 to 37 years of age,9 to 26 years of experience and 4 to 7 dan degree, and 6 Tsukuba University female students,18 to 21 years of age,6 to 11 years of experience and 3 to 4 dan degree. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The maximum magnitude of foot force acted on the platform with step-in motion showed rightward, backward and vertical impact at the early stage of the foot contact with the floor at shomen-uchi, and showed rightward, forward and vertical impact at kote-uchi. The pattern of force components were almost the same both in male and female Kendo players. 2. Comparing the peak magnitude of vertical force (Fz) of male Kendo players with female Kendo players, the former showed larger value than the latter. (Fz Shomen-uchi; male 13.1, female 9.36, Kote-uchi; male 11.4, female 9.04) 3. The holizontal velocity of the center of gravity and the vertical velocity of the right knee point of male Kendo players are faster than those of female Kendo players. After the contact of the right foot on the floor, larger positional difference of the center of gravity in vertical direction was found in female Kendo players than male Kendo players.
We purpose to examine to resolve methodological problems faced when trying to analyze the perceptual-motor skills. We consider KARATE for that purpose. We point out that not only S-R model and S-O-R model, but also the sensoy-motor coordination theory are not anadequate to analyze KARATE. We present a new analytical shema from the stand-point of structuralism which has 3 properties: wholeness, transformation, and self-regulation. We studied the same beginners' motions in KARATE matches for 2 yrs in the frame of our new analytical shéma. Some results are as follows: a) “Motion Space” gradually expanded through 2 yrs. b) A rythm of body was appeared after 1 year. It seems to aim the preparing the next motion. c) Displacements of subjects changed gradually from “strait lines” to “curved lines” and the inside of a motion gradually differentiated. d) The tendencies of their appearance are statisticaly significant (p<001). We can present such changes as the producing a mathematical displacement group. e) A player who can absorb his opponent's motion structure into a subgroup of his own motion structure is certain to win a match. f) A player perceives his opponent's motion in the frame of his structured Motion Space. We carried out 2 kinds of researches about this hypothesis. One was the research about the perception of opponent's no-guarded points in the matches. We found the difference between beginners and experts on that perception (p<.01). The other research was the unusual perceptions of the highest experts. We got 150 answers of experts and its 58% was that as we expected.
The fighting order of contestants in a judo team match often seems to decide the issue. What follows is a report on the results of psychological analysis and consideration of the answers obtained through a questionnaire to coaches relating to their views on the First All-Japan Inter-High School Judo Championship Match. Results: 1. Twenty-three (76.7%) out of thirty coaches have had such an experience as of losing a match because of the failure of organizing effective fighting order of contestants. 2. (1) Scoring effective points, or (2) scoring the first point, or (3) recognizing the other team members well seems to contribute to gaining a victory in a match. 3. Planning a strategy in a match can be made (1) before the match, or (2) on the very day of the match, or (3) while the match is on. Emphasis then is put on an analysis of his and his opponent school team members, ways of taking the initiative, physical and mental conditions of the contestants of his team, and strategies between coaches of both teams. 4. Strategic plans are made with particularly adequate consideration for a team either of the same rank or a little higher rank. 5. Scoring the first point brough about a victory in 76.5 percentage of the matches. 6. Twenty-two (43.1%) out of 51 matches were those in which a sub-captain proved to be decisive.
Since the inauguration of the modern educational system, bujutsu military artists out of office demanded that budo military arts be put in the regular curriculums. To this, Ministry of Education and scholars on physical education argued that budo military arts was inappropriate for regular curriculum. They pointed out that budo military arts could be dangerous and that it lacked the unity of instruction program and of teaching method. They admitted, however, that it could be given as an extra curricular activity to male students who were fifteen years of age or older. In order to change the attitude of Ministry of Education, bujutsu military artists employed the following two strategies: (1) to try to obtain as many people's consent as possible in the Parliament, and, (2) to try to obtain as many teachers' consent as possible by presenting “the teaching method of budo military arts” based on the experimental studies. The present study deals with the latter. There were balically two problems to be solved on the part of bujutsu military artists out of office so that they could obtain teachers' consent, and eventually budo military arts could be put in the regular curricums. One is the dangerousness;“atemi (hit the vital point to make one unconscious)” in judo, and “men-dageki (hit the opponent on the forehead)” in kendo were considered to be particularly dangerous. The other is the lack of unity; each school had its own method and program. Bujutsu military artists presented “Bujutsu-taisoho (a method to teach basic patterns of bujutsu military arts to a class all at once)”to solve the above-mentioned two problems at a time. Many people presented their own methods. Among them, the one presented by Ozawa Unosuke was very popular and it influenced the establishment of the teaching method of budo military arts very much.
1) Preface Mr. Kaisyu Katsu established Kobe Navy Institute in 1862. In this school, Ryoma Sakamoto, Munemitsu Mutsu, and Sukeyuki Itoh etc, who contributed at the Meiji Restoration. The object of this school was the training of persons who would be able to cope with European culture and technique and would be over pedigree. The school was seemed to be what a educational plan of Mr. Kaisyu Katsu was embodied. So I argued that one point of this plan was related to Mr. Kozo Hirayama. 2) The establishment and contents of Kobe Navy Institute In this chapter, Iargued the object, stuff, contents, and textbooks. Pupils studied the Western Modern Science. 3) Relation to Mr. Kozo Hirayama. I argued that a point of his plan was inflvenced from Mr. Kozo Hirayama throuh his father, Kokiti Katsu. Comparing the insistence of Mr. Kozo Hirayama with the object of Kobe Navy Institute which was established by Mr. Kaisyu Katsu, they seemed to be similar. 4) Conclusion In this paper, I argued that the educational plan of Mr. Kaisyu Katsu came out from the feeling of national crisis and the origin of his plan seemed to be the thought of Mr. Kozo Hirayama.
It will be Kenjutsu that underwent transfiguration most of the budo in the last days of the shogunate. In the evolution of 'the theory of the practical bugei', Kenjutsu was forced to change in quality in the position between the hojutsu (the Japanese gunnery) raising its head and the declining kyujutsu (the Japanese archery)and jujutsu. Now in this paper, mainly considering the various materials related to Sugane Kubota and Nobutomo Odani which were cleared up in the research, and refering to the documents related to the Itto-ryu Kenjutsu, positively I discussed the inclination of the change in guality of Kenjutsu in the last days of the shogunate. I will arrange them in order next. Shinai Uchicomi Shiai Kenjutsu (the Kenjutsu by the matches hitting each other with shinai) whose systematization of the technics had been immature was weeded out taking it as an opportunity long shinai's coming into vogue, and, the disciplining and practical Kenjutsu was groped by Kenjutsuka (the proffssor of Kenjutsu), with it, the systematization of the teechnics of Shinai Uchicomi Shiai Kenjutsu had progressed.