The purpose of this study was to evaluate indirectly the effects of body weight increase by fat growth on “Deashi” (dashing forward) power. For this purpose, we examined the power generated from the “Shikiri” position (crouching position in Sumo wrestling), when weights were attached to the subject's waist. After the measurements of body composition, eight wrestlers (%Fat<25) were selected as subjects. In addition to the power, we measured force and velocity, which are the component elements of power. For the measurements of these three parameters, an inertia wheel (equivalent mass=200kg) was used. The measurements were taken on the five weight load conditions (no load, and 25%,30%,35%, and 40% of the simulated %Fat). The following results were obtained. 1. The power varied significantly (ANOVA; P < 0.01) among the weight load conditions. Maximum power was observed on the load condition of 35%Fat (simulated %Fat). This value was 30% higher (post-hoc test; P<0.01) than that of the no load condition. 2. Similarly, the difference in force among the weight load conditions was statistically significant (ANOVA; P<0.01). The maximum force, on the load condition of 35%Fat, was 18% higher (post-hoc test; P<0.01) compared with that of the no load condition. 3. However, the difference in velocity among the weight load conditions was not statistically significant. From these results, it seems probable that the “Deashi” power and force both rise with body weight increase even by fat growth, and that when %Fat is over 35%, however, both the power and force decrease or do not change.
It is important for us to think of how Judo will continue to advance in the future for Judoists in Japan and other countries. We must study not only how value different countries remain the same, but also how they differ. This study pertains to the values of New Zealand Judoists, in particular how Japanese values towards Sports differ between Japanese Judoists and their New Zealand counterparts. The study was in the form of a survey, and the data was analyzed from the viewpoint of four factors. The following results were revealed. 1. The New Zealand study self-discipline was important. Due to the strong influence of English Sports values which state that a person becomes stronger in mind and body through Sports, the spiritual aspect of Judo is readily accepted. 2. The study group also agreed that technical self-discipline was important. Although data was not available for other New Zealand Sports players, it was felt that in the technical aspects of self-discipline, the influence of this Japanese value was apparent. 3. Due to the strong influence of the formal, traditional English Sports values taught in the public schools, the traditional values of Judo were also traditional foundation for New Zealand Judoists. 4. The emotions of shame and obligation to the group are not considered to be of greatrts of all types are played primarily for personal pleasure and in the spirit of amateurism. This attitudes is evident in their approach to Judo as Well.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence over vital function and daily-life activities for elderly people who have practiced Kendo for their life. The subjects are 10 elder whose average age are 70.3 ± 1.5 years old and the average experience of Kendo are 48.3 ± 7.5 years. In addition, their acquired rank of Dan are 7.1 ± 0.73Dan. The control subjects are six elders whose average age are 66.0 ± 2.9 years old. The item of measurements are visual functions (Kinetic visual acuity and Flicker test), auditory capacity, the sense of balance (stand on one foot and eyes are closed), and choice reaction time of whole body. Heart, rate, oxygen uptakes, pulmonary ventilation, respiratory rate, and blood pressure are measured at rest time, during six minutes bicycle steady exercise (1.5kp,60rpm), four minutes of recovery period. (1) The results showed that the Kinetic visual acuity on the Kendo group were significantly greater than controlled group (P<0.05). However, there is no recognition of significant differences on Flicker test between both groups. (2) The loss of auditory ability on right ear on Kendo group (37.1 ± 8.27db) are remarkable than controlled group (31.7 ± 7.52 db) (P<0.01). (3) At the time of balance on one foot with their eyes closed, Kendo group showed significantly greater than controlled group (P<0.01). (4) On the choice reaction time of whole body, they did not show any significant differences between both groups. However, Kendo group moved to more accurate than controlled group to instructed mat according to designate the color, we found statistically significant differences (P<0.01). (5) The mean values of oxygen uptakes, pulmonary ventilation and respiratory rate during exercise and at recovery were significantly higher on controlled than Kendo group (P<0.01). (6) There is no differences on systolic pressure between two groups. On the mean values of diastolic pressure during exercise, the controlled showed significantly greater than Kendo group (P<0.05).
Kendo became required in prewar secondary schools (normal schools and middle schools) on 10 january 1931, when the normal school regulations and the enfocement regulations of secondary school legislation were amended. The first ever teaching guidelines for kendo was enacted in the second amendment to the shhool physical education teaching guidelines on 3 june 1936. Ukichi Sato, who drafted the teaching guidelines for kendo stated that the purpose of teaching kendo at schools was to “discipline the will power of students”. Meanwhile, the war against China that broke out in 1937 escalated out of hand and the country had to reorganize physical education so that contents of teaching would suit the purpose of war. It was not the exception in the case of kendo at national schools. Teaching kendo was done on the assumption that students might eventually participate in actual combat. All of this teaching in physical education, however, was banned with the end of the War in 15 august 1945.
Recently there comes a lot of debating about Judo suit and main points are its form and colour. We tried to reserach the historical changes of Judo suit, especially about its form and colour in Japan and the results are as follows; (1) During the war pesiod, the warrior put on a HAKAMA (a divided skirt forman's for mal wear) and a KOSODE (a wadded silk garment) under the armors. After the war ended, the warrior sheds the armor and put on a HAORI (a Japanese half coat) instead of the armor on a HAKAMA and a KOSODE. The warrior wore a JUBAN (a half undergarmet) and drawers as underwears and the colour of those wears were white with the raason of low cost without dyeing. (2) When the warrior practised KATA of Jnjutsu, they took off a HAORI and so the wears for the practice were KOSODE and HAKAMA. After the KATA practice, they did MIDARE-GEIKO (a practice of free fighting style) and then took off KOSODE and HAKAMA and wore half sleeves which were made wider and quilted to make it be stronger, and the form was as the same as JUBAN. They put on MOMOHIKI (drawers) too in the practice. (3) The founder of Judo, Jigoro KANO mentioned Jude suit in his book that an upper garment could be white cotton in colour and trousers, MOMOHIKI with strings around the waist. Those which were mentioned by J. KANO are the technical terms of underwears, so that the origin of Judo suit could be recogrized as the underwears in Japanese culture. J. KANO maintained traditions of the white colour and improved of length of sleeves for prevention against injuries. And he established Dan and Kyu grading system with the various colours of the belts. (4) There has been a traditional belief among Japanese peoqle that white colour means pureness and holiness which are much worthy to the life, so that could be the reason why the white colour of Judo suit could be maintained so far.