The purpose of this study was to clarify “value orientations toward Sport” in Judo practitioners from the view point of “Tradition and Modernity”. We examined studies of “value orientations toward Sport”, conducted by Webb (1969), Kidd (1975), Tatano (1984), and Yamaguchi (1984), and constructed a three point scale (To play to win, To play for enjoyment, and To play for self-discipline). We attempted to clearly determine the value orientations of Judo practitioners in comparison to Kendo and American Football practitioners, bacause Kendo was assumed a more traditional martial art than Judo, and American Football was assumed to be a typical modernized Sport. We conducted the survey between 1995-97 for Japanese University students (only males) who have high-level skills in each Sport (Judo: n=97, Kendo: n=155, American Football: n=97). The results were revealed as following: 1) About 60 % of Judo practitioners ranked “To play for self-discipline” as the most important orientation. It would indicate the values of Japanese traditional martial arts, but it was less than Kendo practitioners (=about 75 %). 2) About 20 % of Judo practitioners ranked “To play to win” as the most important orientation. It placed more than Kendo (=about 5%) and less than American Football (=about 50 %). 3) About 20 % of Judo practitioners ranked “To play for enjoyment” as the most important orientation as Kendo and American Football. It could be understood that enjoyment was a basic value orientation in any kinds of Sport. Thus, concerning Judo practitioners, “Self-discipline” remained as a traditional value orientation, but “winning” as a modernized value orientation was also recognized as important. Therefore, it could be interpreted that these results indicated the fusing of tradition and modernity in Judo as a physical culture.
The purpose of this study was to explain to the judo principles, and to examine to present young judo player's knowledge on the judo principles. We examined to JIGORO KANO's writing literatures on the judo principles, and we made inquries about The judo principles to university judo players of 126 in number. We explained as follow on the judo principles. 1. SEIRYOKU-ZENYO means to use one's energies in proper quantities case by case. 2. JITA-KYOUEI means to be satisfied with generally. 3. SEIRYOKU-ZENYO and JITA-KYOEI correlate to each other. 4. SEIRYOKU-ZENYO and JITA-KYOEI are principles that analyzed to thought of DOKA's JYU. 5. There needs as a great energies as win against a person and the mind that sticks at nothing to realize the judo principles. And there things can to learn from judo practices. The result were as follow on the inquries about the judo principles. 1. The players who gives a correct answer on means of SEIRYOKU-ZENYO were only 14 in number. 2. The players who gives a correct answer on means of JITA-KYOEI were nobody. 3. The players who gives a correct answer on relationship of SEIRYOKU-ZENYO and JITA-KYOUEI were only 5 in number.
This study was undertaken to clarify the characteristics of Kendo matches by junior high school players, university student players, All Japan Kendo Championships players and eighth dan players. The Kendo matches were recorded with a video camera to depict locomotion traces of the left foot of players using the DLT method. Intervals between the two competitors (Maai) during a match were calculated with locomotion floor patterns to see how these intervals changed. Maai is one of the essential conditions for expertise in Kendo. Therefore this study compared the occurrence percentage and periodicity of Maai movement across four groups Kendo matches. The results were as follows: 1. The occurrence percentage intervals of more than 1.0 m or less than 1.5 m during a match were the highest for junior high school players (25.9%), university student players (24.3%) and All Japan Kendo Championships players (24.2%); on the other side, intervals of eighth dan groups were 46.8% for more than 3.0 m less than 3.5 m, showing greatest occurrence. 2. The distribution curves for the occurrence of Maai were mainly classified into two patterns. One was the pattern which had higher peak at Maai of sword-guard tangle position compared to Issoku-itto-no-Maai (one-step-one-sword interval). Junior high school, university student and All Japan Kendo Championships players showed this type. The other pattern was demonstrated for the eighth dan group showing a larger percentage on Issoku-itto-no-Maai. This suggests that the occurrence percentage of time engaged in Issoku-itto-no-Maai increases with the improvement of Kendo performance. 3. Compared with high frequency power spectral densities, those with low power spectral densities are high. The transitional deviation of the Maai curve of the eighth dan group is small compared with other group.This suggests that the eighth dan group is consistently better distanced from the partner in Issoku-itto-no-Maai: they are neither too far nor too close for proper striking. 4. The auto-correlation coefficients of a transitional curve of the Maai of All Japan Kendo Championships players and eighth dan players were higher than that of junior high school players and university student players. This means that there is a natural distance-correcting rhythm in the matches of All Japan Kendo Championships players and eighth dan players. However, the curves of Maai in matches of junior high school players and university student players tended to be more random.
Most kendo players have gone through a traditional form of training, called Kangeiko. Kangeiko is a high intersity training camp carried out during the cold early mornings of winter. The aim of Kangeiko is to cultivate the mind and improve the physical fitness of the kendo players. In this study, we examined the changes in nocturnal urinary catecholamines excretion, aerobic fitness, and subjective condition during kangeiko in kendo. Training in Kangeiko was performed for about two hours from 5: 00 to 7: 00 am., and Kangeiko was continued for ten days in January in 1995. Training program during Kangeiko consisted of Kirikaeshi and Kakarigeiko for 30-40minutes, and Gokakugeiko for about 30minutes by interval training form. We measured nocturnal urinary catecholamines (dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline) excretion in five female college kendo players throughout Kangeiko, and evaluated their aerobic fitness before and the 3rd day after Kangeiko using multistage fitness test. Resting blood creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured before training on the first,6th, and 10th days of Kangeiko, and the 3rd day after Kangeiko. Each players kept recording their subjective condition, such as fatigue, muscle soreness etc., using 7-point rating scale from 1 (very bad) to 7 (very well) throughout Kangeiko. Nocturnal urinary catecholamines excretion were increased on the 3rd and/or 8th days of Kangeiko, but with no significance. Aerobic fitness fell the 3rd day after Kangeiko. There were significant correlations between changes in nocturnal urinary catecholamines excretion and aerobic fitness. Subjective condition was significantly decreased throughout Kangeiko. In most of the players, some of subjective condition became worse with the changes in nocturnal urinary catecholamines excretion. Compared with the first day of Kangeiko, resting blood CK activities were significantly increased on the 6th and 10th days of Kangeiko, indicated that repetition of high intensity training during Kangeiko produced remarkable disruption of muscle tissue. Change in basal sympathetic activity induced by extreme physical and mindful stress during Kangeiko might cause changes in aerobic fitness and subjective condition of the kendo players. Training program should be designed in consideration of individual differences in those stress during Kangeiko, as well as adequate health care.
This study intends to clarify winning techniques by analyzing the Intercollegiate competition of the Students Karate-do league of 1992. The study group was composed of 155 male and 15 female students participated in the 41st All-Kyushu Intercollegiate Karate-do Team Kumite Competition. Judging from the winning techniques, in male,31.8% was winning by decision and 68.2% was winning by double point; in women,100% was winning by double point. Another notable was, even after revising the rules of the karate-do match, a thrust was concentrated up to about 86% in both male and female matches.