The purpose of the present study was to examine regions of the body affected by Kansetsu-waza. The participants were 22 college and high school judo players. They were requested to point out the most painful region for each Kansetsu-waza technique. For analysis,28 techniques were chosen from 9 kinds of Kansetsu-waza. The binominal test and the chi square test were conducted. The results demonstrated that the elbow was the most painful region for 16 techniques and the shoulder for 8 techniques. This finding suggests that some Kansetsu-waza, which was Udegarami, Udehishigi-hizagatame, and Udehishigi-sankakugatame, has both the technique affecting the elbow and that affecting the shoulder. From Uke arm movement,28 techniques can be classified into three broad types: extension, twist with internal rotation, and twist with external rotation. Chi square tests indicated that the elbow was the most painful region for extension techniques, and that the shoulder was the most painful region for twisting techniques with either internal or external rotation. In relation to refereeing rules, Kansetsu-waza application is forbidden for any joint other than the elbow, however this study indicated that some Kansetsu-waza techniques allowed in the competition affect the shoulder. These findings suggest that refereeing rules for Kansetsu-waza are not necessarily based on real-world experience and that there is room for improving application of these rules.
The purpose of this study is i) to examine and compare the fundamental educational quality of Judo and Judo values as perceived by current Judo practitioners and to identify how Judo values are perceived today throughout the world. The educational value of Judo was repeatedly stressed by its founder, Jigoro Kano, therefore a questionnaire was constructed including a series of questions regarding educational aspects of Judo. The questionnaire was given to young and skilled Judo practitioners from Japan, the U. S., Australia and France (2000-2001). Of the six important principles of Judo, preferences of surveyed Judo practitioners indicated greatest importance was given to sei-shin-shu-yo (spiritual development), sei-ryoku-zen-yo (to put your best effort into everything) and tai-ryoku-ken-ko (fitness and health), but not much importance was given to chi-ryoku (intellectual capability), go-shin (self-defense), and ji-ta-kyo-ei (living with others harmoniously). Survey results indicate an increasing must win attitude among Judo practitioners throughout the world. As with many other popular sports, the moral aspect of Judo, particularly the concept of ji-ta-kyo-ei, is often overlooked today in favor of the desire to win.