The purpose of this study is to clarify the original thought which existed in Jujitsu from a view point of the Oriental Medicine. In the Edo era, an original thought was required in the process of the systematizing Jujitsu to exist as a culture. In order to clarify the original thought, its combination with Medicine is focused as a point of view. In China, Martial arts and Medicine were considered as a concept of body which was closely related to the Care of Health Thought (Yojo-Thought) in Dokyo. This means that Martial arts had a potential to be the Method of Care of Health (Yojo-Ho) e. g. Taichi (Taikyokuken). Japanese Jujitsu, which had the Yoshin-Ryu as a school of typical example, adopted a lot of Medical knowledge and thought. At that time since Japanese Medicine, it seems that the Care of Health Thought (Yojo-Thought) flowed into Jujitsu.
Preface It is an important subject to discuss the tendency of competition and the development of the method of mental culture, when we consider the modernization in Budo. Especially the method of mental culture made progress late in the Meiji era, when the inclusion movement to school curriculum was in full swing. Encouraging elementary school education and prothoting the youth activities are shown here as one of the subjects of the improvement movement in local districts after the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. In this research Hide Makino, who belonged to Ono-Itto School of Kendo, is studied. He was the principal of an elementary school in Aichi Gun (county) of Aichi Prefecture, and keen on spreading mental culture as the idea of kendo to the youth in his region during this period. We will study a from of the method of mental culture in districts along with the local improvement movement mentioned above. Contents I. THE POPULARIZATION ACTIVITIES IN NISSHIN MURA (VILLAGE) OF AICHI GUN (COUNTY) BY HIDE MAKING, WHO BELONGED TO ONO-ITTO SCHOOL OF KENDO 1. Hide Makino 2. Characters of Disciples Observed in the “Menkyo-daicho” (The Records of the Registered Students and of Their Grades) 3. The Teaching Method and the Actual State of Training Stated in “Yuki-no-hikari” (The Records of Winter Exercises) II. HIDE MAKINO'S ACTIVITIES AND THE IMPROVEMENT MOVEMENT IN LOCAL DISTRICTS 1. Hide's Idea of Teaching Kendo 2. The Local Improvement Movement and the Youth Activities Conclusion 1. Hide Makino planned to establish modern educational Kendo based on the theory of school Kenjutu. 2. Hide Makino tought the mental culture and leader-ship to the youth of country in the circumstances of the improvement movement in the districts, which prevailed throughout the country after the Russo -Japanese war.
A questionnaire conducted on 32 women Judoists reinforced for international tournaments is analized and summarized as follow. 1. The average age, height, and weight of those surveyed were 18.6 years old,158.8cm, and 58.3kg, respectively. They had an average of 6.1 year experience in Judo and 75 percent of them were high school or college students. 2. A large number of them mentioned as their motives for beginning Judo that Judo looked like an interesting sport and that they are fond of Judo itself. Judo appealed to them for reasons of skill involved and because it is a martial art. Generally speaking they formed positive attitudes and cheerful impressions toward Judo. 3. In order to promote women's Judo, therefore, it is important to give girls in their childhood many oppotunites to watch Judo and take part. 4. The players assigned on average 2.1 hours a day and 5.3 days a week for practice at their schools, the Kodokan, and private clubs. They concentrated on Kakari and Randori. Only 44 percent of them did Kata. 5. The greater part of the women surveyed pointed out factors that had a decisive effects on the matches in national tournaments included fighting spirit, endurance, amount of practice and the Newaza techniques. 6. They listed on the other hand items such as the lack of the experience in international tournament, fear, stage-fright, the lack of conditioning, and the Tachiwaza techniques as determining factors in international tournaments. 7. This survey suggests that further examination and the development of Newaza exercises along with physical fitness training is required. 8. In order to maintain mental conditioning in women Judoists and to prevent them from experiencing fear, stage-fright, the lack of conditioning, and the Tachiwaza techniques as determining factors in international tournaments.9. As to weight reduction as well as health care for women Judoists, it is expected that well-directed guide lines be established having been examined carefully from the viewpoints of method, rate and terms of the weight reduction.
A questionaire was conducted on 200 women Judoists and the results was analyzed. The percentage of collection was 78.5%, and the following represents summaries. 1. The average age, height and weight those surveyed were 18.5 (±7.6) years old,156.2 (+7.6) cm, and 53.8 (±9.8) kg, respectively.77 percent of them were middle high school, high school, college, and special school students. 2. 73.2 percent had been involved in other sports with the exception of Judo. Especially, a large number of them had played in _various ball games. On top of this 10.2 percent of participants had practiced some other martial arts. 3. Judo careers of less than 2 years and less than 4 years represented 43.9 percent,26.8 percent, respectively, i. e. those with experience of 1-4 years took up 70.7 percent of the total. 4. The interest was due to a number of factors such as art, mental training and usual nature of Budo, respectively. Direct motivation to start Judo was through following the advice of their parents. 5. The place for training for the participants were 66.9 percent in school during physical education class and extracurricular Judo whereas 28.9 percent were in private clubs. 6. The participants assigned mainly on average 2 hours a day and 3 times per week. But, a small number of them practiced 7 times per week including Sunday (11.5 percent). 7. Generally, Kakari-Practice occupied 50.2 percent of their time and was done for 20 minutes at a time, followed by Randori-Practice, standing style which 59.2 percent of them practiced for 20-30 minutes. However, Newaza-Practice, grand style was 56.7 percent for 10-20 minutes at a time. In short, a long practice time was spent at Nagewaga, throwing technique, whereas there was a short practice time for Newaza, holding technique. 8. Kata-Practice was performed by only 44.6 percent of them,10-20 minutes each occasions. 9. The physical fitness training for Judo was 60.4 percent for 10-30 minutes. 10. Practice between male Judoists and female Judoists took place between either the teacher or a higher level Judoist. 11. Benefits from Judo were given as improvements of character, health and physical fitness. 12. A large number of women Judoists participated during menstration as usual, but many of them complained that their body condition was not good. There was a remarkable difference between individuals with respected to body condition during menstration. 13. The important factor for women's Judo in future is to produce women Judo instructors, and the sooner the better.