Prior to the times of Jiajing (A.D.1521-1566), Japanese swords were often imported into China as tributes, trading goods and complimentary gifts, but there was no record that Chinese troops or civilians had learned and widely used Japanese swordplay, except for the imperial guards. Since the year of Jiajing 31 (A.D.1552), the massive Japanese invasion of the southeast coast of China made Chinese people notice the advantage of Japanese swordplay. Meanwhile Chinese army and civilians who loved Chinese wushu needed better sword skills,therefore Japanese swordplay became rapidly known and absorbed by them and spread among the folk people. At that time some members of the Chinese army were equipped with Japanese long swords; the warriors used cane shields, and the archers and the cavalry were equipped with Japanese waist broadswords. Training involved the repetition of solo patterns or routines first, followed by matches with other people. Some civilians who learned Japanese swordplay exercised mainly the routines, others mainly practiced a single pose or stance. The kind of Japanese swordplay that spread among civilians could be divided into two types: in one, people were trained by original Japanese swordplay; in the other one, people practiced Japanese swordplay with Chinese swordsmanship together, integrating Chinese swordplay and Japanese swordplay into a new kind of swordplay. In both cases, the practice of Japanese swordplay introduced into China was characterized by the use of patterns or routines.But the routines used by the Chinese army and the folk people were greatly different. In the army, the routine was laid out from the perspective of group training, so it was brief and simple; while the folk routine was laid out from an individual point of view, so it was long and complicated.
This paper studied the recognition of concussion, which lately has been considered a problem in sports-related head injuries. Participants in a judo leadership training session were surveyed. The result of the survey showed that while most respondents were aware that symptoms such as “impaired consciousness” should be regarded as symptoms of concussion; only half of the respondents knew that symptoms such as “behavioral change” should be regarded as symptoms of concussion. This indicates that it might be possible to overlook concussion or underestimate its symptoms. About half of the respondents said they had experienced the occurrence of concussion on the mat while teaching, and at least 40% of respondents had the judoka resume training without providing sufficient rest. Concussion had long been categorized as a “mild symptom” among head injuries; however, the potential risks associated with concussion have been pointed out in recent years. Therefore, it is important to recognize and understand concussions correctly to ensure the safety of judoka.
The purpose of this study is to examine through available documents and previous research how kendo was introduced and developed in Korea in the modern Joesen period. The study results are as follows. In general the leading role in the international spread of kendo was played by the emigration of Japanese people and the martial arts organization known as the Dai Nippon Butokukai. However in the case of Korea, kendo or gekken (as it was called then) was introduced as part of the late Joseon dynasty’s modernization policy. The reason for the introduction at that time was the victory of Japanese army in the Sino-Japanese War. At that time, namely in 1895, gekken was first introduced as a training exercise in the police force. Then in 1904 it became a subject in the military academy training. Because at that time of the Joseon dynasty the military academy was under the Ministry of Education, gekken came to be seen as a part of school physical education. But since the Ulsa treaty of 1905 and the growth of nationalism with the crisis of the loss of national sovereignty, kendo as school physical education developed characteristics of the patriotic movement.
It is possible that quick reaction of the whole body is delayed during exerting muscle strength, and this effect is larger when exerting larger muscle strength. This study aimed to examine the defensive motion reaction time in judo competitors, while exerting different handgrip strengths. Subjects were 46 young males (mean age, 19.7 ± 1.3 years; mean height, 172.5 ± 4.6 cm; and mean weight, 79.0 ± 13.9 kg) with black belt in judo. They performed the defensive motion reaction time test exerting handgrip strength. They placed only one leg on a mat with a device measuring the whole body reaction time, grasped a grip strength device with one hand, and reacted to a light stimulus under each condition (different grip strength levels): 0%, 20-30%, 50-60%, or >80% of their maximal handgrip strength. One way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the significant differences among the means of the defensive motion reaction time values for each condition. On statistical analysis, the reaction time was significantly longer in the 20-30%, 50-60%, and the >80% conditions than in the 0% condition, and significantly longer in the >80% condition than in the 20-30% condition. The size of difference (effect size) between the 0% and the 20-30% conditions was small, and that between the 0% and the 50-60% conditions were moderate, and that between the 0% and the >80% conditions were moderate, and it tended to be larger with increasing handgrip strength exertion. Moreover, as the handgrip strength became larger, also the reaction time was significantly delayed (Y=9.6X+332.6). In conclusion, the defensive motion reaction time in judo competitors is delayed with handgrip exertion, and the delay is larger when larger strength is exerted.