The purpose of this study is to clarify how effective Autogenic Training (AT) is in providing psychological support during weight loss. 27 male university judo players participated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, from psychological and physiological indicators, we determined the practice effectiveness of AT. In Experiment 2, we compared AT’s clinical efficacy to psychological conditions during a short period of weight loss before a bout. As a result of Experiment 1, psychologically emotional improvements were observed, and physiologically participants progressed from a sympathetic dominant state to a parasympathetic dominant state. Thus, AT led the subjects to relaxation states psychologically and physiologically. Also, Experiment 2 revealed that AT elevates “Coach acceptance” according to the Sports Motivation Inventory (SMI) and “psychological state during competition” according to the Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological State During Competition (DIPS-D.2). Furthermore, experiment 2 showed a tendency to control “displeasure” according to the Stress Response Scale (SRS-18), indicating a possibility of reducing the psychological burden caused by weight loss. As a result of this study of the psychological support using AT at the time of weight loss, the displeasure before a competition and the degradation of coaching contents were alleviated, and the psychological state during a competition was improved. Therefore it was revealed that AT is effective as a supporting method to enable a good psychological condition.
Recently, there have been many research reports related to information processing by kendo competitors. However, none of these papers demonstrate a neurophysiological analysis. Therefore, in this research we will pay attention to the target group’s brain waves (event-related potential), and we will aim for a neurophysiological analysis of the characteristics of the kendo competitors’ intracerebral information processing mechanism. The subjects were ten male college kendo competitors (kendo group, n=10) and ten male college students majoring in fields not related to physical education (general group, n=10). Two visual stimuli conditions (CT condition and Task1 condition) were created to simulate kendo in a S1-S2 selection reaction task. The event-related potential caused by the task was recorded, and the characteristics of each group’s P300 were compared and examined. Furthermore, an electromyogram was derived from the button press task, and from that the Electromyogram Reaction Time (EMG-RT) was calculated, the results of which follow. 1.For both the CT and Task1 conditions, the kendo competitor group’s EMG-RT was significantly shorter than that in the general student group. 2.Regarding the Task1 condition of the kendo competitor group, the NoGoP300 demonstrated a significantly higher amplitude from the frontal lobe to the parietal lobe, and a significantly shorter latency than the general group. Regarding the shortening of the kendo competitor group’s EMG-RT, it is presumed that long term continuous exercise affected the mobilization of the loop between the cerebrum and cerebellum, changes in synapse efficiency, and increased the level of cerebral cortex excitability, as well as the various parts within the brain related to exercise and information processing cooperating with each other to work efficiently. The result shown from kendo competitor group’s Task1 condition in the NoGoP300 can be thought to be related to changes in postsynaptic potential because of long-term continuous exercise, and changes in the mechanism of intracerebral information processing because of the special characteristics of kendo. The results suggest that as the kendo competitor group’s reaction time is shorter, the intracerebral information processing mechanism, especially influenced by reaction inhibition, is carried out efficiently.
The body that oversees judo in Japan, the All Japan Judo Federation, has faced successive scandals involving violent incidents and fatal accidents which have served to give rise to social criticisms of its coaching practices. In April 2013, the organization launched a Certified Judo Coaching Qualification System in order “to improve coaches’ qualities and coaching ability, to enhance public trust in coaching practice, and to ensure coaches’ status.” Conversely, another judo powerhouse, the Fédération Française de Judo, Jujitsu, Kendo et Disciplines Associées (FFJDA), had defined professional judo qualifications, thereby establishing a national coaching qualification system, in a national sports-related law enacted in 1955. Although the differences between the Japanese and French social systems preclude any simple comparison, a number of experts have recommended the FFJDA coaching qualification system as a model for Japan. In 2008, the FFJDA introduced a new qualification system comprising six stages, such as the Diplôme d’Etat de la Jeunesse, de l’Education Populaire et du Sport (DEJEPS), and established an even more thorough policy for coaching training. The FFJDA is home to a variety of approaches, including a rigorous national examination system that allows coaching trainees to take an examination after a long period of training, a tutorial system (tuteur), a reciprocal exchange system (dispositifs de formation en alternance) and a screening system that leads to trainee certification. This has resulted not only in zero fatal accidents among judoka,but also in increased enrollment in the sport as well as an improvement in competitive ability, as reflected in France’s second-place ranking in judo at the 2012 London Olympics. The FFJDA system may thus serve as a useful case study for Japan, which is seeking to enhance its own coaching qualification system.