This essay presents a methodology which tries to look at the Budo history from a perspective of making of the wazas (techniques). This author devides the development of Budo techniques into the following five phases based on the history of the spors techniques. Phase 1 a stage when Bujutsu was used in actual fighting--from antiquity to 1543 Phase 2 a stage when schools of Bugei were formed--1543 to 1840s Phase 3 Bugei in competition, i. e. Bugei was transformed into Budo--1840s to 1900s Phase 4 reverse secularization of Budo--1900s to 1945 Phase 5 present-day Budo--after 1945 In phase 1 it was what is called the “practical technique” stage in the history of sports techniques. Phase 2 saw the departure from Bujutsu for practical purposes to Bugei for “fun and games”. Phase 3 was the transition period from “fun and games” stage to the “competition” stage. From phase 4 onward, Budo was played systematically as “competitive sports”. “Reverse secularization”, conspicuous from the phase 4 onward, went against the modernization processes of sports, and produced ritual styles of Budo which are different from the traditional styles of Budo since the Edo period. Many of the Budo styles, considered today as the tradition of Japan, were consciously ritualized during this period.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nature of Budo education at Kenkoku University, which was founded by the former Japanese army called the Kantogun and the Chinese collaborators during the Manchurian period in China. The following questions were arisen specifically in relation to the purpose: 1. The ideas behind the establishment of Kenkoku University, 2. The nature of the educational dormitory called JYUKU, and its students and teachers, 3. The nature of education provided through four training subjects, 4. The idea behind Budo as a training subject and on the gymnasium for Budo, 5. Brief careers of the Budo teachers, 6. The arrangement of personal appointments and brief of the advisers for Kendo, Judo and Aikibudo, 7. The team of Budo instruction (Bugaku) at Kenkoku University, and 8. The substance of the Bugaku course. This study was done by reiew of reference books and listening to old students and teachers of Kenkoku University. In addition, it was based on information which I got in Changchun when I visited the old site of the University in August of 1990. Briefly, the results were as follows: 1. Kenkoku Univ. was established to foster leaders and government officials for Manchuria. The prime minister was its president. It was a special Univ. 2. About 150 students were gathered from five nations. They were Japanese, Chinese, Mongolian, Russian and Korean. The five races were divided into six JYUKU schools, each consisting of about 25 students from all nations. Kenkoku Univ. consisted of a six-year course divided into two or three-year courses. 3. Training subjects consisted of philosophy, army, Budo and agricultural training. During the first three-year course, students studied these subjects in the afternoon, attesting to their importance in the University curriculum. 4. Vice president Syouichi Sakuta wrote in his book: “Generally, Japanese Budo are not techniques for fighting but for developing the culture of the mind and to foster energy. If we want such strength, we must practice Budo.” In other words, Sakuta expected the students to become men with cultivated minds and physical energy. The gymnasium for Budo was called YOUSEIDO, which was the biggest and most superb building in the Univ. 5. In 1941, there were five full-time teachers in the Univ.; Prof. H. Ishinaka (Kendo), Associate Prof. K. Tomiki (Aikibudo and Budo theory known as Bugaku), K. Manda (Judo), T. Yoshikawa(Kendo), and Assistant Prof. J. Asako (Kendo). About one year later, M. Kagawa (Kyudo) was promoted to Associate Prof. I believe. S. Wakuta (previously Sumo wrestler, Tenryu) was a part-time teacher. 6. It is difficult to say who arranged the personal appointments for these teachers, but three advisers seemed to be related to them; Y. Shimatani (Kendo), S. Fukushima (Judo) and M. Uesiba (Aikibudo). 7. The team of Bugaku was set up at Kenkyuin, which was a research organization of Kenkoku Univ. This team consisted of two low ranking teams, military and martial arts (Budo) team. 8. According to the school regulation, there were four parts in the Bugaku team: Budo and Bujyutu theory, the histories of wars, what wars should be, and the strategy and tactics.
“BUGEI-ZUFU-TSUUSHI” (in Korean, Muye-Tobo-Tongji) was published in 1790. SOUSYUTOU (Shangusudo) can be seen in this book. SOUSYUTOU was affected by KOUWA (Japanese prisoners of the Invasion of Korea by Toyotomi Hideyoshi) and the drillmasters of Ming China army in the process of its formation. This study attempted to analyze the political situation of a sword arts in Japanese Invasion of Korea from 1592 to 1598. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship of SOUSYUTOU with KOUWA and Ming China army. The results can be summarized as follows. 1. In those days, a sword arts in Korea was less developed than Japan and China. 2. The sword arts was introduced into Korea from Japan and China by KOUWA and Ming China army in KUNRENTOKAN (HullyonTogan). 3. SOUSYUTOU was affected by KOUWA and Ming China army through the medium of KANKYO (a man of public functionary in Korea).
The purpose of this study was to obtain the fundamental data of impact force on the Shomen-Uchi movement in Kendo. Four Kinds of Shomen-Uchi movements were analyzed by motion analysis system using the video tape recorder and impact force was measured simultaneously. The subjects for this study were 5 male Kendo players,33 to 42 years of age, with 20 to 30 years of training experience and 5 to 7dan degree. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The downward maximum magnitude of impact force on movement A was greatest among four kinds of Shomen-Uchi movements (movement A: 144.41±41.07Kgw, movement B 144.25±35.78Kgw, movement C: 120.80±36.74Kgw, movement D: 127.81±32.23Kgw). 2. The forward maximum magnitude of impact force on movement C was greatest among four kinds of Shomen-Uchi movements (movement A: 46.45±15.48Kgw, movement B: 61.45±20.90kgw, movement C: 80.80±24.05Kgw, movement D: 74.93±17.96Kgw). 3. It was shown that the larger the maximum Shinai angle (the angle between Shinai and horizontal line) on the phase of backswing of Shinai is, the more the maximum magnitude of impact force (Fz) of the Shomen-Uchi movement increases. 4. At the impact, a significant relationship between the trunk angle (the angle between trunk and horizontal line) and the forward impact force was seen. 5. In the phase of downswing of Shinai on the Shomen-Uchi movement, a significant relationship between the impact force (Fz) and the downward maximum velocity of the top of Shinai was observed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the measures to prevent injuries and to improve performance of Kendo by analyzing injuries due to Kendo from practice condition and athletic specificity. The findings were collected from a survey by questionnaire on injuries due to Kendo. The following results were obtained. Thirty-eight out of forty-four Kendo players (college players) had experience in injuries due Kendo in the past. Most Kendo players were injuried in college. Most Kendo players were injuried during practice of Kendo (Jigeiko, Kakarigeiko, or Shiaigeiko) in the middle or the latter half at practice of Kendo. Most of injuries were myorrhexis, plasmotomy of the tendon, tendovaginitis, sprain, stress fracture, spondylolysis, lumbago and bruise. The higher occurence parts of injuries due to Kendo were ankle and wrist joints, the tendo calcaneus (Achilles), crus, thigh and regio lumbalis. Many injuries of crus, the tendon of Achiles and wrist joint were in the left, although injuries of ankle joint were in the right. Fiftysix percent of all injuries were caused by fatigue and the fatigue was occured by Tobikomi action, Suburi action, or Taiatari during Jigeiko and Kakarigeiko in the latter half at practice of Kendo. These were concluded that injuries due to Kendo can be prevented by master of correct Datotsu technique, the measure to fatigue, forming appropriate training plan and the systematization of staff for first aid and that the weight training to the higher occurence parts of injuries due to Kendo was needed for prevention of injuries and improvement in performance of Kendo.
The Purpose of this study was to examine the maximum magnitude of mechanical stress to shin bone produced by KANIBASAMI. Volunteer subjects were six male college black-belt judo players (174.8±4.07cm,75.5 ± 8.71 kg,1.7±0.82). The bending stress (BS) on two fiber glass poles, which were regarded as a single human leg, was measured. Strain gauges were put on each of the poles, one at 1/4 shin height (SH), one at 1/2 SH, and one at the center of the ankle joint. Three types (High, Middle, and Low) of KANIBASAMI, which were determined by the heights of the higher legs of the subjects were compared with OSOTOGARI. The results were as follows 1. The BS of OSOTOGARI was greater than the BS of KANIBASAMI at 1/4 SH and at the ankle. Four of the subjects recorded above 20kg/mm2 the breaking BS of the shin bone in KANIBASAMI, but only one of the six subjects recorded above this value in OSOTOGARI. 2. The BS of KANIBASAMI was in High type, Middle type, and Low type order. 3. Four of the subjects recorded above the breaking limit of the shin bone in High type and Middle type of KANIBASAMI. 4. BS appeared increase in proportion to both the height of the higher leg and the distance between the legs.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the weight reduction programs of high school Judoists and Wrestlers, and to compare them. The results were as follows: 1. The student of experience of weight reduction is 35.2% of Judoists and 77.6% Wrestlers. 2. As to the question of why they practice weight reduction, many of the Judoists (57.1%) and Wrestlers (53.3%) replied that the decision of whether to participate or not was personal, and was not going to be changed by the influence of others. 3. As to the question of how they judge their success in weight reduction, many of Judoists (55.4%)and Wrestlers (62.2%) replied that success actually means to do one's best, even if winning is not possible. 4 As for the method of weight redution, many of the Judoists and Wrestlers replied that dieting, restricted water intake and practice with extra clothes were effective but also painful. Running was effective and less painful. 5. As for the level of fatigue (physical and mental factors) during weight reduction, Wrestlers were more than Judoists. 6. As for the pattern of weight reduction, the Judoists (25.0%) and Wrestlers (40.0%) replied that the weight was gradually lost by check-in time, generally compared with Judoists, Wrestlers tend to lose one's by limit before check-in time. 7. As for the consciousness of weight reduction limit, Judoists (45.6%) and Wrestlers (66.6%) replied that it was above 5%. 8. The knowledge of basic nutrition such as regarding proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals was generally known by Judoists and Wrestlers.