The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual conditions of the boyonet fencing education introduced as part of the military drill, a required subject at Kenkoku University (1932-1945) in Manturia. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. The military drill as well as budo and agricultural trainings was considered to be the most important subject as the university. The time of boyonet fencing training in the military program was conducted in the latter half of 1940, three year after the university was established. It seemes to have been related to the characteristic of the university, whose goal was to bring up the high-rank government officials. The style of boyonet fencing drill was typically based on The Model for Fencing published by the Japanese army. 2. The military drill was conducted by an officer and his assistant. instructor called jokyo, but the boyonet fencing was usually taught by a jokyo accompanied by his junior assistant. The names of the major assistant instructors were Noboru Ohta, Teruo Sajyrai, Sunayama and so on. According to the old studens, Sakurai, who served at the university between the establishment and the closing, had much influence upon students since about 1942 at the latest. 3. The boyonet fencing as classwork somewhere between the latter half of 1941, and the beginning of 1941, and then it was gradually expanded, Koichi Fujimori, one of the secondterm students, remembers that his contemporaries practiced the. boyonet fencing after classes and that they started it in 1941. It has been confirmed that the fifth-term students had been engaged in the training as part of their extracurricular activiies since 1944 at the latest. However, it seemes that each year group trained by themselves, and there was no joint training among different year groups. 4. One of the club's menbers said he found satisfaction in the furthering of friendship with their rivals. Competent instructors might have contributed to the good relationships among students, too. The interesting features of the boyonet fencing as a combative sport and such educational environment combined to give the students a sense of great satisfaction. Though the boyonet fencing was a war martial art, it was possible to greatly contribute to the character building of students if there were excellent instructors and an instructive environment, and an if students practiced it, while thinking about what human being, society and international society should be.
The survey was carried out using questionnaires composed of 63 questions regarding perceptions about kendo. Subjects of this survey were dojo (private kendo club) instructors and academic institution instrucors nationwide. The survey was conducted in April 1998 and questionnaires were mailed out with prepaid postage return envelopes for the return of completed surveys. Total responses were 2,715 and the response rate was 46.4%. Twelve factors were extracted by factor analysis, and cumulaive percent of communality was 49.8%. The names of the extracted factors were as follows: “Disciplinary Instruction”, “Importance or Stress Placed upon Winning”, “Expectations of Favorable Treatment at Academic Institution”, “Expectations about Popularization of the Sport Overseas”, “Instructors' Dissatisfaction with Pupils”, “Expectations Held b y Predecessors about Successors to the Sport”, “Considerations Regarding Differences Between the Sexes”, “Suggestions about Improving Kendo-gu (gear and protective equipment for kendo)”, “Heavy Burdens Felt by Kendo Instructors”, “Desire to Obtain a Higher Dan-i (grades of kendo expertise)”, “Insufficient Ability to Instruct”, “The Chance for Various Opportunities”. The relationships between the differences in the instructional environment and the differences in perception were examined with multiple comparison of factor scores by Scheffe's method. With regard to three factors, the difference in instructional environments were related to differences in perception in every dan-i.In terms of “Disciplinary Instruction” and “Expectations of Favorable Treatment at Academic Institution” factors, academic institution instructors view these factors less positively, while dojo instructors view them more positively. In “Importance or Stress Placed upon Winning” and “Expectations Held by Predecessors about Successors to the Sport”, academic institution instructors have more positive views about these factors than dojo instructors within some dan-i. With regard to the remaining factors, perceptual differences were seen according to differences in dan-i. The instructors who own lower than fifth-dan have markedly different perceptions from other instructors.40 However, with regard to the factors of “Suggestions about Improving Kendo-gu” and “The Chance for Various Opportunities”, significant differences were not seen at all.
Jigoro Kano established Judo in 1882 and until his death in 1938 he promulgated the values of Judo through his many essays and texts. The purpose of this study was to clarify the emphasis and structure of values in Judo by Kano through an analysis of these texts. The research method undertaken was to set 8 main categories into which all the values espoused in Kano's work could be divided these being: (1) Moral, (2) Intellectual,(3) Physical,(4) Technique, (5)Martial art, (6)Seiryku-zenyou,(7) Jita-Kyouei (8) Cultural identity. The contents of his essays can be broken down and allocated to one or more of these categories. The emphasis and structure of values seen in Judo by Kano can be thought of as the sum each of these categories. The following results were revealed as summarized. 1. The value of “Moral training” was seen most often, therefore, it was thought that Kano emphasised it as the most important value in fostering superior personalities through Judo training. Even though Ju-jitsu as a traditional martial art had valued “Moral training” only for Samurai class, Kano realised it's value for the general public. 2. The “Physical” value of training the body was also strongly emphasized. It was well-known that Kano appreciated this value from the view points of being strong and well-balanced body, and the useful for ordinary life. 3. In the technical aspect of Judo, Kano valued the principle of beating opponents by using their strength which was original in the period of Meiji era. The practice of techniques was classified into Kata (via prearranged orders and methods) and Randori (free practice), Ranori was valued for making strong body and spirit, and Kata was for physical fitness for general. Kano rationalised Judo techniques through a compare with other Western sports and gymnastics. 4. Kano also valued Judo as a type of strong marital art. He realised the value of “self-defense”. Therefor, he emphasized throwing techniques in Randori and striking techniques in Kata. He also emphasized a serious attitude in practising as seen though the view point of traditional “Shugyou”thought. The reason for this was to foster superior personality through the experience of high spiritual tension. 5. “Seiryoku-zenyou” and “Jita-Kyouei” became the philosophy of Judo from the Taisho era. “Seiryokuzenyou” meant the most effective use of one's spiritual and physical strength and “Jita-Kyouei”meant revolving around harmonious relationships between oneself and others. Kano seemed to emphasis “Seiryoku-zenyou” rather than “Jita-Kyouei” in a Judo context, because “Seiryoku-zenyou”was more closely related to Judo practice. 6. Kano valued Judo as a from of Japanese “Cultural identity” during the time of Meiji era. After the Taisho era., he saw the value in developing Judo in order to internationalized culture.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent training, based upon the requirement of judo competitions, under simulated high-altitude hypoxia conditions on the aerobic and the anaerobic capacities. Ten male university judo competitors were divided into two groups: an experimental group, trained under conditions of low pressure and low oxygen concentrations (3,000m, 525Torr, E group, n=6); a control group, trained under sea level condition (0m,760Torr, C group, n=4). Training protocol consisted of three sets of pedaling exercise (5 repetitive bouts of 2 kp for 50 seconds followed by 5 kp for 10 seconds, two times/week, for 8 weeks). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), ventilation threshold (VT), peak heart rate (HRmax), the time to exhaustion and the maximal work load were examined to exhaustive exercise for estimation of the aerobic capacity. The anaerobic capacity was estimated by the judo test, perform uchikomi for 30 seconds (“Speed-Uchikomi”) and 15 times of nagekomi (“Speed-Nagekomi”) as quickly as possible. “Speed-Uchikomi” was evaluated as the average of the total number of repetitions during 3 trials of uchikomi. “Speed-Nagekomi”, composed of 3 different throwing techniques, was evaluated as the time taken for nagekomi to be undertake. VO2max significantly increased in the E group, marked improvements were observed in the maximal work load and the time to exhaustion in the E group.The frequencies of “Speed-Uchikomi” were significantly decreased, and the time required for “Speed-Nagekomi” was significantly shortened in the E group.These results suggest that intermittent training under simulated high-altitude hypoxia conditions were an effective means of improving aerobic capacity. Additionally it is concluded that these kinds of training also contribute to the enhancement of anaerobic capacity, evaluated by the judo test.