The purpose of this study is to research on the features of training and inter-disciplinary match characteristics in the three groups: the Naganuma, the Fujikawa and the Odani group. These three groups belonged to Jikishinkage-ryu kenjyutsu school and engendered different training styles. We analyzed the inter-disciplinary matches and the lineage of their kata. We also examined their view on kenjyutsu which, we considered, caused their characteristic features. The conclusions of this study are as below. 1.The Naganuma group adopted mainly jyodan posture to do uchikomi in the matches. Eight kinds of kata were practiced in the Naganuma group. 2.We consider that there were two reasons of their frequent adoption of jyodan posture in the matches: one was they frequently used shikake-waza and the other was they considered that the jyodan posture was convenient to deal with opponent’s actions. These characteristics developed the idea of attaching great importance to jyodan in the Naganuma group. They did not neglect kata practice even in the late Edo period when inter-disciplinary matches flourished. 3.As in the Naganuma group, jyodan was also adopted frequently in the Fujikawa group in their inter-disciplinary matches. Since the days of Saito Akinobu, five kinds of kata were practiced. 4.Fujikawa Seisai established the disciplinary system of Fujikawa group in the late Edo period. He criticized that the shinai-uchikomi-geiko stuck too much to winning and emphasized mental training. He insisted that the kata practice was effective in mental training. 5.In the Odani group, jyodan posture was not adopted. It is recorded that Odani Seiichiro adopted only seigan and gedan postures in the matches in Tempo era. As to kata practice only Hojyo is handed down in the Odani group and To-no-kata was trained in shinai-uchikomi-geiko. 6.Odani criticized the division of kenjyutsu into school names and insisted the importance of inter-disciplinary matches to develop one’s strong points and make up for the weak points. The trend as from Tempo period of Tsuki- techniques with a long Shinai was one of the reasons that Odani changed the traditional jyodan posture of Jikishinkage-ryu to seigan posture.
This study examines the activity levels of the neck flexor muscles and the acceleration of the head during the ushiro-ukemi movement. The subjects were seven male expert judo players (expert group) and seven males who were not experts at judo (non-expert group). The neck flexion strength (NFS) during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) and the electromyogram (EMG) activities of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and scalenus (SC) of the neck flexor muscle during MVC and the ushiro-ukemi movement were determined. The rectified EMG signals during the ushiro-ukemi movement were averaged and normalized as the relative value (%EMGmax) to that during MVC. The %EMGmax values for SCM and SC used the calculated ratio of SCM/SC during the ushiro-ukemi movement.We also recorded the acceleration of the head during the ushiro-ukemi movement. No significant difference was found between the expert group and the non-expert group in NFS relative to head mass.The SCM/SC ratio was significantly higher, and the acceleration of the head was significantly lower in the expert group than in the non-expert group. The results indicate that the acceleration of the head during the ushiro-ukemi movement is influenced by the activity level of the SCM. The activity level of the SCM is one of the most important elements in learning how to perform the ushiro-ukemi movement.
Naginata made a fresh start as a sport after World War II and in its new form, “Rhythm Naginata”, in which practitioners perform to rhythm such as music, was created. This study examines the process in which Rhythm Naginata was created and developed and the main instigators, and explores possibilities in the future development of Naginata as a field which demonstrates the diversity of budo arts. The budo arts were originally developed for combat. In post-war Naginata, however, Rhythm Naginata came to be utilised in the training and acquisition of basic moves and techniques such as forms of etiquette through the traditional process of learning Kata. This is because modern budo arts aim for character building, and are practiced by people as popular forms of traditional physical exercise. In tracing the origins of Rhythm Naginata, we find that “Naginata-Mai” (dance) was performed in Shinto rituals throughout Japan for invoking rain or abundant crops. Naginata-Mai, which was an elegant system of exercise considered suitable for girls, was created by Ozawa Unosuke. He was an educator who invented bujutsu-taisō (martial art calisthenics) in the latter years of the Meiji era when Naginata had yet to be approved as an authorized field of study in the education system. In the post-war era, Rhythm Naginata was initiated by Sonobe Shigehachi, headmaster of Jikishinkage-ryū. It is clearly stated in a bulletin published in 1966 that he coined the term “Rhythm Naginata”. Sonobe’s successors, Yamamoto Misao and Kajiyama Takeko, demonstrated Rhythm Naginata accompanied by piano for the first time as a public display at the 10th National Athletic Meet. In 1961, Mori Kiyoko, a teacher at Asaka Junior High School in Saitama Prefecture, created Rhythm Naginata for junior high school students, and demonstrated it at a Naginata meet. Yano Tsune, who studied the Tendō-ryū Naginata as one of the first generation of students in the Butokukai’s Naginata course, led the performance of Rhythm Naginata by students from Osaka University of Health and Sport Sciences at the Kobe Universiade in 1985. It was accompanied by traditional Japanese music and mainly displayed techniques from classical Naginata. Rhythm Naginata successfully achieved two outcomes: 1) it could be utilised as an effective educational medium; and 2) as a representation of Naginata’s cultural value it contributed to the spread and development of Naginata by showcasing its aesthetically pleasing movements and skills required in using a long weapon. Further study is needed to ascertain the connection between Naginata Mai and Rhythm Naginata.
The purpose of this study was to develop a psychological skills inventory for kyudo (Japanese archery) athletes. The subjects were 253 kyudo athletes in university athletic clubs (174 men and 79 women, mean age=19.98 years, SD=1.29). They were asked to answer a questionnaire that consisted of a face sheet, the psychological skills inventory for kyudo athletes (PSIKA) that was developed in this study, and their hit ratio in competitive performances of kyudo. Two weeks later, a questionnaire survey was carried out on 18 kyudo athletes (9 men and 9 women, mean age=19.83 years, SD=1.54). The result of an exploratory factor analysis revealed a seven-factor solution with 28 items of PSIKA (Image skills, Relaxation skills, Patience, Presence of mind, Confidence in shooting performance, Courteous and norm, Breath control). Each of the factors demonstrated an acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha reliability values from 0.704 to 0.882, and test-retest reliability measured Pearson’s correlation coefficient from 0.417 to 0.657. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the structural validity of the PSIKA showed acceptable fit indices (GFI=0.921, AGIF=0.888, CFI=0.992, RMSEA=0.018). In terms of criterion-related validity, PSIKA except “Presence of mind” related to hit ratio (r=0.154-0.343), and “Presence of mind” related to “State anxiety” negatively (r=-0.433). These results indicated that the reliability and validity of the PSIKA as a scale for assessing psychological skills of kyudo athletes were statistically satisfied. In addition, these psychological skills had a relation to competitive performance, and improved competitive performance for kyudo athletes can be obtained by acquiring these psychological skills. In future research, in order to formulate a psychological guidance method to assist physical and technical training, PSIKA as an evaluative measure in assessing the psychological skills of kyudo athletes should be used.