The purpose of this study was to identify the technique of exerting impulsive forces in Karate Mawashigeri (round-house kick) by comparing impulsive forces of the kicking leg between eight types of Mawashigeri. Five male Karate players were used as subjects (175±6.02cm,71.2 ±7.79kg). Their impulsive forces of the kicking leg were measured by the steel pipe (34mm across,80mm length,5mm thick) which stuck the straingauges on its surface. The steel pipe was fixed to the steel pool at the 1.2m height. Their impulses of the supporting foot was measured by force platform. Their kicks were recorded by a high speed video camera opearating at 60 frames/sec. Eight types of Mawashigeri were classified as some groups. Group 1 was the types which moved the supporting foot to the outside before the kicking motion, and the types which extended the bending knee of kicking side after passing the center line. The center line was the line which connected the center of body with the target. Group 2 was the types which moved the supporting foot to the inside before the kicking motion. Group 3 was the types which moved the supporting foot to the outside before the kicking motion, and the types which extended the bending knee of kicking side before passing the center line. Group 4 was the types which moved the supporting foot to the outside with kicking motion. Group 5 was the types which kept the bending knee of kicking side at the back of body. Group 6 was the types which kept the bending knee of kicking side at the side of body. The results were as follows: 1) There was correlation between the impulsive forces and the peak values of impulsive forces and the left side impulses of force platform. 2) There was correlation between the impulsive forces and the peak values of impulsive forces and the maximum velocities of the kicking leg. 3) Group 5 showed larger the peak values of impulsive forces than those of Group 6, and Group 1 showed larger the impulsive forces and the peak values of impulsive forces than those of Group 3. 4) Group 1 showed larger the left side impulses of force platform than those of Group 2. 5) Group 1 shuwed larger the maximum velocities of the kicking leg than those of Group 3. The techniques to increase the impulsive force of Mawashigeri were as follows: 1) Keep the bending knee of kicking side at the back of body. 2) Extend the bending knee of kicking side after passing the center line. 3) Move the supporting foot to the outside before the kicking motion, or with the kicking motion.
We studied the condition of 35 college kendo players who participated in college kendo competitions in 1990. They were instructed to record their physical, technical, mental, and total conditions before each competition with 5-point rating scale numbered from 1 to 5 (1; very bad,2; bad,3; commonly,4; good,5; very good). Four coaches also blindly recorded the kendo player's physical, technical, and total conditions using the same rating scale as players did. We assessed their records and actively advised the kendo players to improve their conditions. Eventually we could significantly improve the total condition of kendo players as the competitions were drawing near. Although the physical, technical, and mental condition were bad in the kendo players whose evaluation of total condition was the rating scale of 1 or 2, the states were become in good by our advices for the improvement of condition. We found the significant differences in evaluation of physical, technical, and mental condition between the kendo players in good and bad total conditions. The high positive correlations were observed between the evaluations of total condition and other three conditions. There was no significant difference in the evaluation of technical and total conditions between kendo players and coaches. However, there were significant differences in the evaluation of physical condition between players and coaches. We concluded that it was important for kendo players to assess their condition using 5-point rating scale in the present study, and that medical staff was very important to advise them properly to improve their condition and to management the condition of kendo players.
In order to study physical fitness levels, we examined the body composition and maximal oxygen uptake in male Japanese kendo champions. Subjects were 5 males Japanese kendo champion whose average age was 37.0 years (champion group) and were 6 males of student kendo players whose average age was 21.2 years (control group). The following results were obtained from this study; 1) Clear difference was not observed in anthropometric between the subject, although champion group were similar height, and higher in body weight and fat free weight than control group. 2) Side step and trunk flexion on champion group were larger than control group. 3) However, maximal oxygen uptake on the champion group was significantly larger than control group. 4) The relation between maximal oxygen uptake and anthropometric, physical fitness, champion group were significant high correlation coefficient at FFW (0.967), %fat (-0.897), side step (-0.881), and trunk flexion (0.978). 5) These results suggested that Japanese kendo champions have a superior physical fithess level whose have maximal oxygen uptake, fat free weight and trunk flexibility.
This “Jigen” school was founded by Togo-chui about 1600 A. D. The curriculum of this Jigen-school consists of principles, the firm grassing of wood sword, the quickness of the motion, the skills to beat, the dignity, and gazing at the opponent. In this treatise the quickness of the motion will be dealt with, and the way to get this skill will also be dealt with. To get the quick skill we must be accustomed to the distance between us and the opponent, and the quick motion of legs and hands. Further-more we must be innocent, must take to and a half steps within a pulse, when we attach the opponent. It is important to “Shout”, too. It is necessary for us to have half a breath left, and use various kinds of skills according to the movement of the opponents.
This is a Japanese translation of the Dai-Nippon-Butokukai (Budo association) sections in Political Reorientation of Japan: September 1945 to September 1948, vol. I, (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington D. C.,1949) and History of Nonmilitary Activities of the Occupation of Japan, vol. III, (1951). These books were written by the staff of. GHQ/SCAP (General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers) as official records on the occupation of Japan. The former book was edited by GS (Government Section), and the Dai-Nippon-Butokukai section was written by Jack Napier, Major. The latter book was edited by CHS (Civil Historical Section). I believe that these records are indispensable to understand the dissolution process of Butokukai.