We currently use the term renshu (practice) to describe the process of training and mastering techniques in Budô It was called Keiko in the feudal times in Japan. We have to divided the change in the usage of Budô-related words into three periods: the early period when Bushi (samurai warior) culture began: the Tokugawa period (1600-1868), when many martial arts schools were established: and the modern period when kôdôkan judo was founded by Jigoro Kano. We analyzed both the meaning and performance of Keiko using source documents on Budô and Judo, The results of our research are as follows: 1. Bushi in the middle ages used the word Keiko to refer to training in such martial arts as horse riding, the archery, sword play and sumo wrestling, however, the precise methods of traing used in these martial arts are not described in the documents. 2. Keiko meant, at the beginning of the Tokugawa period, simply repeating the forms of techniques which had been established by the founder of each school. Later on the meaming of Keiko changed its meaning from simply repeating the forms and techniques to the process of performing these techniques with more originality and ingenuity. 3. In the latter half of the 19th century the names of martial arts such as jujitsu and kenjutsu and so on changed to judo and kendo etc. along with the modernization of their techniques and philosophies. Jigoro Kano, the founder of Kôdôkan judo, originally used the word keiko as the name for the practice of training and mastering techniques on the Kôdôkan. Later he changed the name of this practice from Keiko to renshu in the beliet that young people ought to do more physical fitness training at schools. He favored introducing the new subject of physical education into all junior high schools to foster the health and strength of young people. The name renshil was thus accepted in the first quarter to the last centuey by judo practitioners, but not in the world of Kendo, where practitioners studied hard and seriosly with the purpose of building up men with a steady nerves, who practiced as if they were using real swords. So in Kendo, the name Keiko was still used to mean ‘practice’ at that time.
We studied the differences between the views of school children and instructors on kendo, considering the length of the children's experience and the instructors' Dan-i, or rank. Our aim was to determine how to popularize kendo among children and to enhance their desire to practice. We compared the children's views with those of instructors and drew the following conclusions: The conclusion of this study may be summarized as follows. 1. The school children had a strong desire to win matches and improve their skills. They were positive for “Other school events than kendo practice”, “Positive effect of kendo practice”, “Characteristics of kendo skill”, “Popularization of kendo”, and “Teaching method of instructors”. But they were negative for “Traditional behavior and manner”, “Positive feeling for instructors”, and “Effect of kendo practice on school performance”. 2. Instructors had a strong desire to focus on spirit and made much of the good points of teaching kendo. They were positive for “Matches are necessary for the popularization of kendo”, “Kendo is more educational than other sports”, and “Popularization of kendo in foreign countries”. 3. Students who had less experience of kendo practice were more positive and felt more satisfaction than those who had much experience. The former group had a strong desire to practice match style in order to participate in matches, and had a positive impression of their instructors. 4. Kendo instructors who had a higher rank were more positive toward teaching kendo than those with a lower rank. The latter had the strongest desire to put great priority on spirit. The former had the strongest desire to find the good points of teaching kendo. They also had a stronger desire to give priority to teaching “Nippon Kendo Kata”, to consider the relation between the number of kendo practitioners and kendo lessons, to conduct events other than kendo practice, and to focus on victory. Instructors with a lower rank saw no distinctive difference between teaching adult beginners and teaching children. 5. Children were more negative than instructors for “Traditional courtesy and manner in kendo”, “Effect on school performance”, and “Affection and longing for instructors”. They were more positive for “School events other than kendo practice” and “Enthusiasm for making kendo an Olympic sport”. There are two big goals for popularizing kendo among school children: to enhance their desire to keep up kendo practice, and to gain more beginners. To enhance their desire to keep up their practice, instructors have to be creative and to motivate the children. They also have to recognize their own experience and spirit for kendo, and improve their quality as instructors. To achieve these goals, instructors have to make the effort to gain a higher Dan-i and improve their coaching skills. Moreover, they have to value the relationship of shi-tei-dogyo, aiming at being good instructors who deserve their students'respect. To gain more beginners, we should focus on public relations. In addition, children who practice kendo and their families should invite other children along. The most important issue for us is to enhance children's desire to keep up their kendo practice.
This study aims to clarify the transition process from Chenshi Quanfa to Yangshi Taichi. In examining the transition process, we considered the following four questions. 1. Why did the change from actual fighting to the concept of improving health and fitness occur in the minds of these two martial arts leaders? 2. Did Yang try to establish Taichi with the purpose of improving health in mind from the very beginning? 3. Why did Yang, who was an excellent fighter himself, make his Quanfa known as a health management method? 4. What specific changes occurred over the three Yangshi generations? The answer to the first question is thought to lie in differences in social conditions, geographical factors, and the purpose of instruction. The same is true of the third question. As to the answer to the second question, we found that Yang Luchan initially tried to publicize his Taichi as an actual fighting martial art rather than designating it as a method of improving health and fitness. Based on the above analysis, we can summarize the transition process from Chenshi Quanfa to Yangshi Taichi as follows. Chenshi Quanfa, which was characterized both as an actual fighting technique and for improving health, was exported to the world outside Chen Jia Gou through the efforts of Yang Luchan. Yang Luchan and Yang Banhou lived in turbulent times, and they initially contributed much to the character of the actual fighting that featured Chenshi Quanfa. As they developed Chenshi Quanfa, however, they increasingly emphasized its usefulness for improving health to cope with social conditions, geographical factors, and differences in instruction methods. Yang Chengfu, who was Yang Luchan's grandson, established the current Yangshi Taichi, which focuses on the concept of improving health and fitness. It is the writer's belief that this process is the answer to the fourth question.