In this research, we take note of kendo referee's viewpoints and opinions. The purpose is to clarify these ideas in regard to the subjects with different skills when judging a match close to the real one, and to obtain suggestions on how to improve the skill of the referee. Using the Eye-mark Recorder, we did the test to judge the match projected on a big screen. Picking up the “Shikaketeiku-waza” from the test, we tried to understand how they apply their viewpoints. Comparing the subjects with different skills and viewpoints towards the process of “datotsu”, we obtained the following. (1) Those with higher skills applied their viewpoints and opinions on the center zone between the players at any time, and don't change zone at all during the process of moving. (2) Those with higher skills put their viewpoints into space, and won't get interrupted much by other points. (3) Those with high skills have little movement of viewpoints. As a result, we found that kendo referees who have higher skills put their viewpoints and opinions on the center zone between players, and also into space. Therefore through this research we couldn't get an exact answer about where to look for judgment. However we find it important not to become fixed on a single point, but to see the whole picture, as if viewing a distant mountain, which we refer to as “Enzan-no-metsuke” in Kendo.
研究は審判器の登場にともなって新しく開発されたFleuretの技術であるCoup de jetageに着目して,熟練者の剣先の速度と関節の角度,角速度から,キネマティクス的に動作を分析し特徴を得ることを目的とした。 本研究の被験者は,国際大会出場経験をもつ男性熟練者9名(競技歴12.3±3.6年,年齢20.8±2.8歳,身長169.1±4.2cm,体重64.4±43kg)であった。ターゲットマネキンに向かってcoup de jetageを5試技行い,3分間の休息を挟んでから,coup de jetage-fanteを5試技行わせた。各試技は,ハイスピードカメラによって撮影し,剣先の速度,関節の角変位,関節の角速度を測定項目とした。 下記に示す測定条件をもとに実験を行った。 1)被験者には,あらかじめターゲットマネキンが対戦相手であるというイメージで行うよう伝えた上で任意の間合いから各試技を行った。 2)試技は,ターゲットマネキンのマスク内に設置した発光ダイオードの点灯を合図とし,任意のタイミングで開始することとした。 3)ターゲットマネキンの高さは,被験者のen garde(構え)姿勢時の肩の位置にターゲットマネキンの肩の位置を合わせ統制した。 4)使用した剣は,各被験者が普段使用しているものとした。その結果,熟練者のCoup de jetageの動作は以下の2つの動作タイプに分類することができた。 (1)肘関節の伸展から手関節の尺側偏位に至るまで,角速度の最大値の増大がみられ,手関節の尺側偏位を制動することによって剣をしならせる(A群)。 (2)肘関節の伸展から手関節の尺側偏位に至るまで,角速度の最大値は肘関節がもっとも高く,肘関節の伸展と手関節の尺側偏位を制動することによって剣をしならせる(B群)。
“Tanden, ” a Japanese term for the lower abdominal region below the navel, is believed in oriental physical arts to be extremely important in maintaining vitality, staying calm, and taking rational action. In this paper, we examine whether the “tanden” focus of attention exherts an influence on postural control. The effectiveness of this “tanden” focus of attention on postural control is estimated by observing the equilibrium of subjects tasked with standing upright while following different sets of instructions. Four groups of subjects are instructed to stand still with minimal body sway while standing on a force-plate system that measures their center of pressure (COP). Each group is given different instructions: One group focuses on markers placed 26 cm away from the middle line of the force plate (external focus), a second focuses on their feet (internal focus), and the third on their “tanden” (internal focus). The control group is given no specific focus instructions. The parameters of equilibrium are the length of COP, average velocity of COP, and ellipse area of COp.The results show: 1) The length of COP is significantly shorter (p<0.05) in the “tanden” focus group than in the feet-focus group and the control group.2) The average velocity of COP is significantly slower (p<0.05) in the “tanden” focus group than in the feet-focus group and the control group.3) In the ellipse area of COP, there is no difference among the four groups. These results suggest that “tanden” focus of attention attenuates body sway.
The objective of this study is to elucidate the characteristics of whole body choice reaction time, movement time, and motion time among top-level collegiate kendo practioneers (or kendoka). The subjects are 20 male collegiate kendoka who are classified into regular kendoka (n=9) and reserve kendoka (n=11) groups. A Type I whole body reaction time measurement device is used for measurements in a test in which subjects perform a whole body exercise (a jump) as quickly as possible in response to light stimulation. In addition, whole body choice reaction time, movement time, and motion time in the forward, backward, and lateral directions are measured using selective and simple light stimulation. Although the reserve group exhibits a significantly shorter whole body reaction time than the regular group in the rightward direction in response to simple light stimulation, no significant intergroup differences are observed in other directions or in response to selective light stimulation. However, the regular player group has a significantly shorter movement time and motion time than the reserve player group in response to selective and simple light stimulation in all directions. These findings indicate that regular team members complete jumping motions more quickly than reserve team members.