The practical combat effectiveness (the practicality of martial arts techniques in real combat) of Chinese martial arts is considered to be its main characteristic, and changes to it may affect its development. During the sportification of Chinese martial arts, especially in wushu taolu, its practical combat effectiveness has always been the focus of controversy. This study aims to reveal the changing process of practical combat effectiveness in wushu taolu by analyzing all versions of the competition rules, as well as interviews of former athletes. The main findings are as follows:
(1) In the 1973 rules, the “difficulty of techniques” was emphasized. Along with the introduction of difficult movements, wushu taolu techniques gradually shifted to an emphasis on speed and agility. A tendency of ignoring the offensive and defensive features of the techniques has appeared.
(2) In the 1979 rules, practical combat effectiveness was temporarily emphasized. In order to halt the decline, movement difficulty was excluded from the rules. However, a trend to pursue speedy and agile movements still existed. Since difficulty was limited by the rules, athletes began to redesign their weapons and jerseys.
(3) In the 2003 rules, due to the international popularization of wushu taolu, the degree of difficulty was reintroduced, and the difficulty score was raised greatly from 0.2 point to 2.0 points. At the same time, the number of major movements was decreased.
(4) The major influence on the decline of the practical combat effectiveness of wushu taolu is its difficulty. Emphasizing the degree of difficulty without questioning the practical combat effectiveness may lead to wushu taolu losing its characteristics. If wushu taolu is considered to be a sport and at the same time categorize itself as a martial art, it is necessary to clarify the definition of difficulty and analyze the relationship between difficulty and practical combat effectiveness of wushu taolu.
This study examined changes in body mass (BM), fat free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM) in 10 male collegiate judo athletes following weight reductions when preparing for competition and after a 1-week recovery period. BM, FFM and FM were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BM and FFM significantly decreased after the weight reduction period (P<0.05), though the BM did not recover fully after the 1-week recovery period. In contrast, the FFM was restored after the 1-week recovery period. The FM decreased significantly when compared to before the reduction period (P<0.05), and the FM after recovery was also significantly lower (P<0.05) when compared with before reduction. The FM did not return to the former level even after the 1-week recovery period had passed. These results show that a decrease in FFM due to weight reduction was unavoidable. However, FFM recovers during the 1-week recovery period.
The 1st All Japan Judo Championship for the Intellectually Disabled was held from September 16-17, 2018. This tournament was made possible through the efforts of the Committee for Promoting Judo to the Intellectually Disabled, under the auspices of the All Japan Judo Federation’s Education Initiative and MIND Committee. This tournament represented a trial run in various matters, from newly-implemented administration processes to referee regulations. Furthermore, this tournament was a way in which the intellectually disabled from around the country, that are interested in judo, could assemble in one venue to interact in a stimulating and positive environment. While many barriers and challenges in teaching and promoting judo to the intellectually disabled remain, this national tournament embodies the All Japan Judo Federation’s commitment to the intellectually disabled, and is a significant step forward in the expansion and development of this sport into the disabled community.