Change of judging rule of Judo and Kendo as BUDO is summarized in an introduction, The origin of each article and the background of its revised or supplemented ones are discussed in details. The main object of this report is interpretation on the reason why these revised and supplemented articles have been derived. The interpretation was infered from technical, tactical, and restrictive aspects of the rules. Especially it was done on the original character of BUDO.
Along with the development of Judo as an international sport, the woman participants of this sport are increasing all over the world. As a matter of fact, International Judo Federation is reportedly planning to hold the World Woman's Judo Championship Tournament in the near future. Taking the said international trend into account, in this study, in order to clarify the characteristics of the Japanese woman Judo-ka (Judo players), their physical fitness was studied. The results were analyzed according to the skill level, and were compared with that of their sports. The outcome indicated that the Japanese woman Judo-ka did not differ greatly from other woman athletes in their stature, and that their fitness level was lower than the others, though back strength was the only exception.
This study is aimed at an examination of the effects of the weight reduction on body composition and cardio-respiratory functions. Seven university judomen participated in the experiment. They submitted themselves to a seven day regimen of dietary reduction accompanied by heavy sweating brought about by both judo practice and repeated sauna baths. Results obtained were as follows. The decrease in body weight attained was 3-5 kg (3-4.5%). Lean body mass show no significant change, but a drop in total body weight was achieved due to a reduction in adipose tisse (total body fat). The ratio of lean body mass to body weight increased. These changes were not associated with a significant drop of maximum oxygen consumption. These were no significant changes max. ventilation, max. cardiac output, max. heart rate, max. stroke volumes and arteriovenous oxygen difference between pre- and post weight reduction conditions. It is concluded that these results were not related to deteriorated circulatory or respiratory functions but to changes in lean body mass.
Since the establishment of new rules in 1957 for Karate-Do student tournaments the fighting techniques have remained unchanged. Karate-Do as Kata-Budo had many different techniques. However, when the tournament rules were first adopted in Karate-Do some of the techniques used proved to be dangerous. This led to the revision of tournament and judging rules and to the prohibition of certain dangerous techniques and the recognition of safe techniques regularly used in competitions. An analysis of four tournaments produced some interesting statistics. The statistics showed that hand-techniques were four times as pupular as foot-techniques, and that the most popular hand-technique used was a punch to the head (Jodan-Tsuki) while the most used foot technique was a stomachkick (Chudan-Keri). Under this system Karate students only use a small number of techniques and it is unlikely in the future that new techniques will be introduced. However, all new ideas or new competition techniques are considered and. the Karate board welcome suggestions from teachers and students.
At the present time, some psychologist and psychiatrist have made researches in the problem of “ KI ”. They say that “ KI ” is under the control of the mind and influences other's mind. Ultimately “ KI ” is the relationship between oneself and things. But it is necessary to discuss “ KI ” from the standing of physical education or “ BUDO ”. The purpose of this article is to make clear the specifics of “ KI ”, which are thought to be the most important concept in traditional theories of martial arts. To list the terms on “KI” 663 examples, which appeared in 8 literatures written by swordsmen in the “ EDO ” era, could make the theme clear. The result of this article are summarized as follows. 1) Swordsmen who had attained higher perception said that “ KI ” is such as atmosphere or features of heaven and earth, and the principale to control man's motion. 2) “ KI ” is the medium between mind and body or my own self and another person. 3) They directed their attention, to transforming themselves, by cultivating the “ KI ”. And it was accomplished by particular breathing exercise. 4) “ KI ” is not only nominal definition, but real essence.