Driving the rotors of combination plow by two different driving methods, i. e. P. T. O & hydraulic, we studied the relation between travelling speed and power when they cut soil at high speed, and the following results were obtained. 1) By P. T. O-driving, the ranges of the fluctuations of the rotor torque is wide, and power transmission parts suffer sharply fluctuated torque. By hydraulic-driving, however, the ranges of the fluctuations of the rotor torque are very small, and transmission parts suffer nearly constant force, because the rotor speed changes according to resistance changing momentarily during one rotation. 2) By P. T. O-driving, power is much affected by travelling speed and is little affected by rotor speed. By hydraulic-driving, however, power is much affected by rotor speed because of changing momentarily of the latter. 3) We studied the cycle character of the fluctuations of the rotor torque by spectrum analysis. As the result, we found that though we used the rotor holding four knives, only two knives of them worked in effect. 4) On the assumption that the soil was failed by compression and shearing, and the failure surface was in accordance with Rankin's theory, we theoretically worked out the problem of the soil cut by the rotor rotatig at high speed. The theoretical solution nearly agreed with the result of experiment.
There are two types of expressions, that is, Bekker's and Janosi and Hanamoto's expression, to estimate the soil thrust. The former can be used when shear stress-strain curve shows a peak. The Latter can be used when shear stress approaches to a constant value with increasing strain. But there is a type of curve in which stress increases with increasing strain on surface of paddy field. In this case, we can not adopt the expressions mentioned above to compute the soil thrust. Therefore, the author tried to get an expression for this case and obtained the expressions (6) and (7).
It is said that specific gravity, cetan number and viscosity of fuel have a close connection with out-put, starting performance, exhaust color and making of carbon flower. Treated heavy oils in ultrasonics were found to be much superior to untreated ones in out-put, specific fuel consumption and other performances when they were used for high speed diesel engine of precombustion chamber type (4PS/2, 000rpm). 1) Treated heavy oils were much superior to untreated heavy oils in maximum power. For example, the treated B heavy oil (LS) was higher about 8-10% than the untreated, and was nearly equal to light oil and Yanmar's heavy oil. It was found that treated heavy oils, compared with untreated ones, could burn perfectly up to higher load, as the result of analysis of exhaust gas. 2) Specific fuel consumption of treated heavy oils was 5-15g/PS-h less than untreated ones, but that of full load in heavy oil like B heavy oil (LS) was larger than that of 3/4 load and much larger in comparison with light oil and Yanmar's heavy oil. 8) We found that even treated B heavy oil (LS) could be used for high speed diesel engine (2, 000rpm) from out-put point of view. When specific fuel consumption was considered, there was more suitable revolution for this fuel. Accordingly, the suitable revolution will have to be pursued by experimentation. 4) When we considered synthetically combustion performance of out-put and specific fuel consumption and its limited condition of exhaust color and exhaust temperature, treated heavy oils were found to be much superior to untreated ones in cruising power. 5) The effect of injection timing and injection pressure on bad heavy oil was larger. For example, on B heavy oil (LS) the most suitable injection timing was synthetically 9-10°(B. T. D. C.) and injection pressure was 140-160kg/cm2 as shown in Figs. 9 and 10. 6) When treated heavy oil was used for diesel engine, carbon flower was smaller in comparison with untreated on eas shown in Fig. 11-(1) (2). 7) Exhaust color became gradually dark with operating time, and its ratio with treared heavy oil was smaller than with untreated one as shown in Fig. 12.
The operating hours of the tractor work are classified into the in-the-field (pure operation) time and the off-the-field time, which includes the travel, the service, the idle and delay time. This paper discusses the factors of the off-the-field time and their potential time. The results are as follows: 1) The presumed value of the travel time is influenced by the travel speed, the number of field and the number of operating implements in a day. The attainable travel speed is nearly the same as the maximum tractor speed on the paved road, and is from 3 to 5m/sec on the farm road. Because of stops and turning, operator comfort, and other delay factors, it is impossible to maintain the attainable speed. The speed factors for converting the attainable speed to average speed are from 0.85 to 1.0 on the paved road and 0.65 to 0.85 on the farm road. 2) The service time is influenced by the daily service time and the implement arrengement time in the field. The daily service time which includes the time of preventive maintenance for the tractor and implement and that of mounting or dismounting of implement on the tractor, takes place after the lunch and before and after the operation. The values of them show great diffeence between the systems. (Table 1) 3) The idle or delay time was classified into the time at changing of work and that during the work. As the former is shorter than the latter, it is important to take scheduled rest time and to stop the idle or delay time during the work. (Table 2)
Spray deposit and drift on the Ultra-Low Volume spraying by helicopter were obtained by the activation analysis techniques. The solution of Manganese Sulfate in the KASUMIN was applied under the various conditions of flight height (6-14m) and speed. To the distance of 180m from the flight path on both sides, the deposits was investigated by using the filter paper set on the sampling plate. And to the distance of 20m from the flight path on both sides, the deposits on the filter paper stuck to the upper, middle and lower parts of the rice plant and on the rice plant itself were investigated. The results are as follows. 1) The quantity of the background for the filter paper set to the sampling plate on the sprayed day showed about 0.3ml/10a, and by this value 1/167 of spray deposit was assumed as limit of identification. 2) The irregularity of the deposits on the sampling plate was very large, and significant difference of deposits among the flight condition was not recognized. The mean value of deposits on the fixed swath width was 17-31% of the applied spray volume. 3) Under the condition of 1-2.4m/sec wind, the drift to the lee side was recognized, and the deposit was approved as n-th order of the distance from the flight path. The deposit on the location of 54-83m from the flight path was 1% of applied volume. 4) Because the filter paper was stuck to the rice plant on the day before the sprayed day, the quantity of background was very much and different among the samples. But we can appreciate the significant difference among the test sections, and a relation of exponential function is showed between the spray height and the deposits. To get a high spraying efficiency, it is necessary to utilize the descending current by helicopter as effective as possible. At the 6m and 4m spray heights the deposits was 5.8% and 26.6% of the applied volume. There is little deposit on the middle and lower parts of the paddy plants. 5) Because the background of the rice plant is great, we do not appreciate the deposit on the rice plant.
Recent development in farm machinery has produced another type of harvesting machine called the “Binder”, which can perform reaping and binding simultaneously. This machine, however, has some defects, especially in producing tight sheaf for threshing process after a certain period of drying. In order to understand more about the problem, some experiments under various factors related to sheaf loosening have been conducted. For convenience, a criteria was established to express the tightness of binding by using the term ‘looseness’ as the magnitude of sheaf clearance with the binding rope under compressive force of 3kg. I. Looseness-sheaf condition 1. Looseness was linearly increased with the weight of sheaf. Magnitude measured at threshing was three times bigger than that of reaping time. 2. Looseness was linearly decreased with binding force. Influence of the force over the difference in magnitude at reaping and threshing time was not clear. 3. Smaller magnitude of looseness was observed when location of binding was higher than the standard height. This influence was also visible in magnitude difference at the two processing time. II. Looseness-operation condition of the machine 1. The influence of binding materials tested over the magnitude of looseness is explained by the following relationship: Jute<sisal<polypropylene blister<polypropylene rope 2. The time of reaping at harvest day was also affecting the looseness. This is thought as a results of water contents influence. 3. Looseness of big sheaf (1. 30kg.) at harvest time was larger than small sheaf of 1.09kg. III. Looseness-planting method 1. Sheaf from plot planted by drill method showed a larger looseness than that from plot by transplanting method. It is expected that this fact was due to the influence of straw-foliage ratio of the sheaf.
The static characteristics of unit process of rice husker were stated in the first report. In this paper, the results of some experiments on dynamic relation between various operating conditions of each unit process and grain feed rate by means of the inditial and impulse response methods are reported. The time behaviour of grain flow rate was measured by the grain flowmeter. From the response curves obtained, the equivalent dead time L and time constant T of each unit process are determined and expressed by the variations of grain flow rates. The dynamic characteristics Gi are expressed as the transfer function e-Ls/Ts+1 or e-Ls/(1/2 Ts+1)2. As T and L vary by the grain flow rate and operating conditions of unit proccess respectively, the process system of this husker is nonlinear.
The husking test, in which the roller having a shape of hyperboloid of one sheet of revolution is employed, was made and the following facts were ascertained. 1. When paddy are supplied on generating straight lines in the nearest position, the husking ratio is not influenced by the position on which they are supplied. But when they come off these lines, the ratio gets lower. 2. By this apparatus the husking ratio remains higher than general ones even if the slit breadth between two rollers is rather wide and it is liable to break the alemon layer. 3. An auxiliary roller needs no special device to revolve, and only the roller with a shorter radius may be helped by subsidiary belt. 4. With the increased number of revolution of rollers the husking ratio gets higher. 5. This type of roller does not require less power than a right cylinder roller does, or rather it sometimes needs more power in practical driving. 6. Slip length is proved to be one of the important factors in husking. 7. If the slit breadth is excessively narrow, the re arises the possibility that the power required increases extremely. In consequence, this type of roller is suitable for the case in which large capacity is required notwithstanding the fault of breaking of alemon layer.
The rough rice in the field varies its moisture content with in a day because of the absorption in the night and the drying in the day. The rough rice harvested by the combine varies its moisture content depending on the harvesting time, that has much influence on the operation of the dryer after the harvest. Therefore, the variation of moisture content and the absorption characteristics of the brown rice were surveyed. 1) The differences of the atmospheric temperatures with in a fine day in the middle of October and of November were 13-18°C and the humidity change was about 70%. These climatic variations produce a daily change of 2.5-5.6% moisture contents in rough rice. 2) The absorption velocity of the brown rice depended upon the temperature, the volume of adhering moisture and its moisture content. The higher the temperature and the more the adhering moisture and the lower the moisture content, the easier the absorption.
The transport mechanism of moisture within a tobacco leaf during curing was studied using tobacco laminae from which midribs were removed to exclude the effect of moisture in them. The following results were obtained. (1) The rate of water evaporation during curing through the upper side surface of a leaf and that through the lower side were measured separately, and were compared with the total rate of evaporation through both sides. It became clear that the water loss through the upper side surface was greater than that through the lower side. (2) The above results indicated that the pathway for the transport of moisture during curing was primarily in a liquid state from palisade and spongy cells to epidermal cells and then through the cuticle by diffusion. (3) To ascertain the above assumption, changes in the moisture content of the epidermal cells during curing were observed. Since the experimental results showed that the moisture content of the epidermal cells was decreased linearly to those of the other inner tissue cells, it was most probable that the formers were continuously supplied with water from the latters. (4) The estimation of the relative humidity of the intercellular space with a model apparatus showed that the humidity was kept near the saturation point if the moisture content of the cell was above 200%. This indicated that the water supply from the vacuole was sufficient to maintain the outer surface of the cell wall covered with a water layer. This also supported the above assumption that the moisture was mainly transported in a liquid state within a leaf during curing. (5) The reason for the difference in the rate of evaporation between the upper side surface and the lower side one was assumed to be due to the difference in the driving force and/or the resistance of the transport pathway. The investigation of the osmotic pressure as a driving force and the configurational arrangement of cells within a leaf as a component of the resistance showed that the both were favorable to the transport to the upper side of the leaf.
As a consequence of the similar form of the heat-flow and the mass-flow equations, the solutions for both equations must also be similar. Therefore, from the solution of the heat-flow equation, the solution of the mass-transfer equation is obtained when the mass fraction is substituted for the temperature T and the diffusion coefficient D for the thermal diffusivity α. For this reason, using the Smith's geometry index for the transient heat transfer from anomalous shapes, the mass (moisture) diffusion coefficients of the grains of an anomalous shapes were measured from drying curves. The results were summarized as follows. 1) The equation of the drying curve was determined by Deming's method of the least square. It is believed that the Henderson's method of three points approximation is accurate enough to estimate the equilibrium moisture content. 2) The decreasing order of diffusion coefficient is as follows: wheat>unhulled rice>polished rice>hulled rice. 3) The Arrhenius' equation was generally applicable for relating the diffusion coefficient to temperature and the following results were obtained. D=5.19×10-3e-3.29×103/T (unhulled rice) D=7.09×10-4e-2.85×103/T (hulled rice) D=7.34×10-3e-3.58×103/T (polished rice) D=5.77×10-3e-3.00×103/T (wheat)
1. Trapesoidal section furrow slices tilled with a triangular working plough have two merits, one is large exposed surface area and the other is large opening space. 2. The proper condition of furrow setting is as follows, p=cosα/cos(δ-α) where p is the ratio of breadth of plowing to tilth, α is tilting angle of share and δ is furrow angle. 3. The condition of maximum furrow surface is as next, α=π/4+α/2 therefore p=cosα/cos(π/4-α/2) 4. Reference (2) indicates next conditions from point of view of furrow stability, FE=FI and p=2sin(π/4-α/2) but this explanation is hard to understand. 5. The condition of maximum opening space is as follows, cos(2δ-α)/cosδ=2sinα 6. Conditions of rectangular section furrow slices will be obtained by substituting 0 for α, a) The proper condition of furrow setting is: p=1/cosδ b) The condition of maximum exposed furrow surface is:δ=π/4 c) When these two conditions are realized simultaneously, δ=π/4 and p=√2 d) The condition of maximum opening space is:δ=π/4
A handy spring loaded type hardnessmeter with hemispherical die was used for measuring Young's modulus of elasticity of fruits and vegetables. The measuring principle is based on the Hertz's theory dealing with the contact of two bodies, and Hooke's law for the spring. The hardness or the compressive force was calculated in E/(1-μ2) theoretically, and the results were grphically represented. The hardnesses of onions, taroes, radishes, carrots, kakis and apples were measured, and the values of E/(1-μ2) were calculated from the hardnesses, using the hardness vs. E/(1-μ2) curve. The Young's modulus may be calculated, if the Poisson's ratio is determined.