1) Water has been emulsified in Diesel fuel (gas oil) up to 46.2 weight % of total mixture, and the authors could operate four-stroke-cycle, single cylinder diesel engine employing a precombustion type by using emulsified fuels. 2) In general, the reduction in the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) is difficult to be compatible with the black smoke, but water emulsified in Diesel fuel could reduce considerably the amount of smoke and oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust of this engine, as shown in Fig. 5, 8 and 9. Therefore, the authors think that the emulsified fuel is one means to reduce some damage to the human body and a plant by work using farm engine in the indoor, the greenhouse and in the garden of a farmhouse in Japan where the wind blows slightly.
The weak points of present load driving systems consisting of mechanical transmission are as follows. (1) The increase in specific fuel consumption and the lowering of mechanical efficiency, at light load, is remarkable. (2) The engine is apt to stall by over-load. (3) The velocity of the tractor can not be changed continuously and smoothly. Thus, it is the purpose of this study to suggest new control systems by which the weak points above mentioned can be eliminated, and the engine is always operated with the optimal efficiency in spite of disturbance of torque. To start with, we designed and tried our hands at control device with hydro-mechanical servo-valves. (Fig. 1) Secondly, using this control device and closed circuit PV-MF hydrostatic transmission system, we should try to control pump stroke angle of variable displacement type axial plunger pump, namely, pump output-flow, according to disturbance of torque. These control systems are divided into the following two new ones; (I) ENGINE OUTPUT POWER CONSTANT CONTROL SYSTEM In spite of great and small sizes of the disturbance of torque, the pump output-flow, namely hydraulic motor speed, is controlled on the basis of the following action principle of control device used p3·q=constant. where, p3 is pump output pressure, q is pump displacement. As a result, if an engine speed is given by governor setting, this control system usually keeps constant engine output power at its engine speed. Therefore, if this control system is always controlled along p3-q (α) diagram in hydraulic system corresponding to engine speed-torque diagram where the engine gives the best efficiency, the control purpose above mentioned should be certainly accomplished. (II) ENGINE OUTPUT POWER VARIABLE CONTROL SYSTEMS Keeping alive many advantageous points which power constant control system has in it, especially in this control system we should try to control the engine output speed in addition to the hydraulic motor speed for the purpose of operating with the output power and the fuel consumption in proportion to the disturbance of torque. In this paper we described mainly design method of this control device. A summary of design process is shown below. (1) Seizing accurately the characteristics of the Diesel engine and the hydraulic pump used by experiments, we require pump torque efficiency, ηpT and engine maximum horse-power, Pepmax, at each pump speed, np→v (2) The desired value is calculated by the following equation. q=Pepmax·ηpT·0.85/p3·np where, the constant 0.85 is load factor which gives the best engine efficiency. Besides, the purpose and condition for usage are some of the considerations that we must take into account. So, in high speed range, the higher the speed, the more load we gave to the control system as the desired value. Theoretical p3-q (α) diagrams corresponding to each engine speed which has been obtained in the way described above are shown in Fig. 5. (3) The theoretical p3-q (α) diagram is nonlinear in most cases. Therefore, design target p3-q (α) diagram is drawn by linearizing approximation of it. (Fig. 5) If the p3-q (α) diagram has been simplified, the desired value of this control system can be given easily by using of combination springs. An noticeable error between actual desired value set in proportion to pump input speed and the desired value previously calculated was recognized. This error is based on the nonlinearity of p3-q (α) diagram and unavoidable In order to improve the accuracy, we must
The theoretical study on the side force of automobile pneumatic tire was developed by E. Fiala, as the dynamic frictional resistance was constant in any direction of tire on the ground surface. But due to some papers that reported the difference between the values of resistance in the direction of revolving surface and transverse, the directional property was studied, in this paper, on both smooth and agricultural tires. Main results were as follows; 1. The maximum frictional resistance was constant in any direction on both tires. 2. The dynamic frictional resistance varied depend on the derection of tire. In this test, the value was indicated by the half length of diameter of elliptical shape, which took the major axis in the direction of revolving surface of tire on the smooth tire, and in the direction of lug angle on the agricultural tire 3. The maximum frictional resistance became large with the increase of tire inflation pressure but dynamic frictional resistance took the maximum value at the certain pressure.
The Author reported on the slip sinkage phenomenon of the tractor drive wheel in the previous reports. In this paper some discussions are done about the results obtained in the experiments which were held in the same way as shown in the ones already reported in the previous reports. Theoretical discussions were done prior to the experimental ones. The following relations were obtained as the function of slippage s of the tractor wheel. η=-0.302s+11.8 (Fig. 3) γ=-0.233s+27.5 (Fig. 4) α=0.266s+26.4 (Fig. 5) ε=α/β=0.017ht+0.225 (Fig. 6) h0=0.57s+3.44 (Fig. 7) pmax=-0.11875ht+9.5 (Fig. 8) β=38° (Fig. 9) In these relations, slippage s is giving big effects on the other factors such as η, γ, … etc. and they can be expressed as the first order function of slippage s.
In this paper, the force equilibrium acting on a driven wheel with rubber attatched to the periphery of the tread was analysed theoretically and experimentally by means of photoelasticity. As the result of these discussions, the following items were pointed out. 1) In the experiments, the deflection of rubber attatched to the periphery of tread of the driven wheel should be considered. Therefore in discussing the torque of the wheel about the axle, the effective radius of rotation of the wheel should be used. 2) The attatchment of rubber to the periphery of the wheel makes it similar to the wheel model for actual use. However the load on axle of the wheel was well distributed and it is a little difficult to read out the fringe order in taking the isochromatic line diagram. Harder rubber woued be better for use in the photoelastic experiment like this. 3) An extended octagonal force transducer was used to measure the horizontal force (F-y)=|Dr|. The measured values coincided well with the calculated results obtained from the photoelastic experiments. 4) It seemed impossible to apply computed results directly to the actual wheel, because some factors such as the deflection of tire and the soil deformation were involved. 5) The angle θ expressing the acting point of the resultant reaction force X' from the ground in compressing zone, was 15 degrees. 6) In determining the magnitude of the tangential reaction force τ and F1' the equations (6) and (22) were used for the cases shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 3 respectively.
The magnitude of the mechanical impedance was measured, and it was compared with that of physiological response for evaluating the threshold limit value of local vibration of the vibrating agricultural machinery. The results obtained were as follows; (1) Mechanical impedance-Frequency curves of two human subjectes showed good agreement each other. (2) The curves exhibited peaks at about 20Hz, 40-50Hz and 120-130Hz. Each peak was related to the resonances of the head-neck systems hand and fingers. (3) The real parts of mechanical impedance showed a tendency to correspond with vibration sensation and the amount of respiration (O2 consumption). (4) The authors constructed the power graph, because the real parts of mechanical impedance were almost the same with the power absorbed in body. So it had been suggested that the threshold limit value should be changed by length of working time. (5) O2 consumption rapidly increased at about threshold limit line obtained from the results of vibration sensation.
We made a soil friability tester to measure pulverizing performance of tilling tine and harrowing tine, and soil friability at various physical conditions of soil. 1) Soil friability is the ability of soil smashing, and is shown by soil friability index and power index for soil pulverizing. 2) When eight kinds of tilling tine is used on three kinds of soil of same type, of different clay content and of constant water content, the result is following: (1) Soil friability index becomes highest when L-shaped tines N8-28 are used, followed by N45-85 tines. Power index for soil pulverizing was minimum when N8-28 tines are used. (2) So, the soil friability of the tilling tlnes N8-28 is greater than that of other tines. (3) The pick tine Hn is inferior to other tines in soil friability, and the difference between them is significant on analysis of variance (4) As clay content of soil becomes higher, soil friability index becomes lower and power index for pulverizing becomes higher, that is, soil friability becomes lower. (5) The faster the cutting speed of tilling tine, the higher the soil friability index. But at the same time, pulverizing horsepower and the power index for soil pulverizing become higher. (6) Power index for soil pulverizing, shown as a function of clay content (CC) of soil and cutting speed (VC) of tilling tine, indicates high index in proportion to log CC and log VC. (7) soil friability index goes down in linear line as CC increases, and goes up in exponential function as VC increases. 3) In case of widly varying water content of three kinds of soil which have different clay content, the results are as follows: (1) As water content increases, soil friability index becomes lower. But it turned ioto a curve around the point of plastic limit (PL) i. e. consistency index (IC)=1.0, and indicates quadric fall. When handle this as a function of IC, the relation that the soil friability index becomes higher in proportion to log IC is found generally. (2) Power index for soil pulverizing decreases gradually with increasing water content. Then, it suddenly turnes into increase at the point of water content of PL:IC=1.0. The minimum index is around the point of IC=1.0 of water content. In both case of IC≥1.0 and IC≤1.0, the index is a exponential function of IC. (3) Soil friability index at the point of plastic limit (PL) shows little change by varying clay content, though a little higher in lower content. Similarly, power index for soil pulverizing increases in proportion to CC, drawing a linear proportion line. 4) To make the seedbed with proper sized clods, using a sieve of a fixed mesh, it will be better to use such tilling tines as L-shaped groups with long horizontal cutting edges. The range of water content suitable for soil pulverizing is around the point of plastic limit i. e. IC=1.0.
(1) The field conditions for using the weeder smoothly in rainy season are as follows. 1) Depth of tilling before seeding is about 5cm —that is shallow—. 2) The field is drained quickly after it stops raining. 3) Paddies are seeded on the small ridge which is about 60cm wide; depth of covering of paddy is about 2.5cm and the surface of the ridge is level. (2) We could work the weeder on the paddy field —sand loam and loam— from plastic limit to field moisture capacity (d. b. 34%-d. b. 39%). And then, we could work the weeder in three days after a rainfall of 80mm. (3) The soil moisture of the surface of field decreased quickly after we used the weeder in high soil moisture. 4) By the weeder working, addition of pulverizing, decrease of porous space and sinkage of ridge surface were noticed a little. (5) The depth of seeds and end of stalk of wild sawa millet was a little shallower than that of rice and resistance for pulling out wild sawa millet was less than that of rice untill 20days after seeding. So, it seemed to be effective to use the weeder by 20 days after seeding.
In this paper, the validity of specific value P calculated by the expression (1) was discussed by the use of the data obtained by the Experiment I. The results are as follows. (1) The correlation matrix of the fifteen kinds of variables concerned with the binding properites of sampled sheaves was calculated and analyzed (Table 2). (2) From the relationship between KT/W (remaining rate of T/W) and the water contents of sheaf with natural indoor drying, it seemed that the deformation and stress relaxation of straw became large in evaporated condition in the same way as the wood (Fig. 3). (3) The negative correlations were recognized for T1/W1 in three kinds of sheaf size at 1% of significance level. And by the regression analysis it appeared that the big and middle sized sheaves were more tightened than the small sized sheaves (Fig. 5). (4) The value of √1+β2·T1/L related P1 which was a specific value P just after the binding of sampled sheaf was considered and analyzed by the use of variance analysis. Its value was affected not only by the sheaf sizes (Factor C) but also the kinds of twine (Factor F) and the physical properties of straw (Factor R) (Table 4). (5) The specific value P1 was calculated by the value of √1+β2·T1/L and the apparent width of twine from the expression (1) and was analyzed by variance analysis (Table 5). (6) The interval estimation of mean values of P1 expressing the tighuness of bound sheaf were obtaind as follows. The big sized sheaf for the twine P1 and P5, P1=1.08-0.78 (kg/cm2). The big sized sheaf for the twine J2 and the middle sized sheaf for the twine P1, P5 and J2, P1=0.80-0.50 (kg/cm2). The small sized sheaf for the twine P1, P5 and J2, P1=0.54-0.24 (kg/cm2).
A trolley car was built for the exclusive use of transporting in vinyl houses. The mechanism and performance of this car are summarized as follows: (1) The trolley car was equipped with a D. C. motor as the prune mover. The voltage and output of the motor was 12V and 144W respectively. The car had one driving wheel and four supporting wheels. The driving wheel ran in the guide rail that was made of L type steel. The car could be loaded with 50kg for the standard use and its traveling speed was about 0.3m/s. (2) A portable generator (1.2V, 10A) or a rectifier (12V, 20A) was used as a source of electric power, and the electric current flowed through the trolley duct installed and the trolley to the motor in the car. The trolley slided in the trolley duct as the trolley contacted with the conductor of the trolley duct. (3) Input of the motor was about 116W and about 124W when loaded 50kg and 100kg respectively, and there was no significant difference in inputs between the portable generator and the rectifier that were used for the source of electric power. It seemed that the capacity of the portable generator was not enough when pulled one car with a load of above 70kg. There was no significant difference in inputs between straight and curved (R=1.7m) guide rails. (4) The car could be loaded 90kg (input was about 120W) and 50kg (input was about 134W) in the case of 2.5deg, and 5deg, climbing angle respectively. (5) As a result of simulation of transporting, no accumulation of cargo occurred even in the case of 10 pickers when the transporting distance was 40m. Therefore it seemed that the some travel speed could be reduced under 0.3m/s, when it would be used in common vinyl houses.
The authors designed a laboratory scale continuous flow conveyor and measured the conveying capacity for some sorts of cereal grains. The results obtained were as follows; (1) The conveyor chain speed had no effect on the volumetric efficiency and on the overall efficiency. Therefore, the capacity increased with increase of the chain speed. And it was profitable to operate the conveyor chain in high speed. (2) The maximum volumetric efficiency was about 0.9 for all sorts of grains tested. A little slipage had always to occur between the grain and the chain. (3) The critical height ratio, √b. hm/t(critical), was about 0.5 for all sorts of grains tested. When the conveyor was operated under the critical height ratio, both the maximum capacity and minimum power requirement could be obtained. Moreover, the flight pitch of the chain should be decided on the basis of this ratio. (4) Both the maximum volumetric efficiency and overall efficiency decreased slightly as the inclination of trough increased. (5) The overall efficiency of grains tested was much lower than that of ordinary particle materials. It was essentially due to low apparent density of grains. And then, even if the conveyor chain were changed to lighter chains, the overall efficiency would not be expected to improve much larger.
Computer controlled scanning and data acquisition for the pattern instrumentation system are made by an AD converter, three DA converters, and relays, which are controlled by the CPU. Scanning control and data conversion sequence are shown in Fig. 2. Data are output by an on-line high speed paper tape puncher. Fully automated instrumentation is made by the hardware and software system. Characteristics of this system is shown by the standard color tips as Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. Plane pattern representation of the tips and an orange leaf by the skew coordinates plot with the on-line analog computer are given in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, respectivly. Finer representation of scanning pitch will be sufficient for more detailed information of the leaf. In three different focused level, scanning line representation of a cherry is also given so as to show the possibility of three dimensional shape estimation. Besides the reflection measurement, it can operate as a photo-densitometer for the transparent specimen. Fig. 10 is obtained from this mode of operation with a positive color film of an orange leaf. Capabilities of pattern instrumentation and its application to the agricultural machinery research are expected by this system. Further studies on the pattern recognition based on this instrumentation will be reported in the successive papers.
The authors laid the grain of hulled rice (stiffix L) and the grain of milled rice (suffix R) of long grain variety on the two fulcra, gave a concentrated load in the center of them, and messured the breaking load in bending WAm, WRm and the breaking deflection in bending δLm, δRm under various moisture contents γ. The authors calculated the deflection in bending δLm, δRm by taking out the penetrating quantity into each fulcrum in loading time from the transforming quantity, namely the apparent deflection εLm, εRm. From the results of measurements, the authors came to following conclusions. (1) Irrespective of moisture contents γ, the authors concluded that a grain of rice could not be regarded as an elastic body. Accordingly, from the results of bending test, a breaking strength and a coefficient of elasticity could not be calculated, but the relation of the breaking load WLm, WRm and the ratio of a deflection to load WLm/δLm, WRm/δRm in relation to the moisture content γ could be clarified for the branny part and the starchy part in grain and also for grains tested, (shown in Fig. 8 and 9). (2) The relation of breaking load in grain of hulled rice WLm to the moisture content γ was the relation of an exponential function. As the unprocessed grain was used, this deviation seemed to show the differrence among the individuals, but when the abnormal grains which seemed to have been injured were excluded the correlativity was remarkable. (3) The relation of breaking load in grain of milled rice WRm to the moisture content γ was the relation of two different exponential functions which were connected at the point of γ≈14.5%, and at γ<14.5% the change of WRm was remarkable. And the deviation of which cause seemed to be in a process to mill rice and to adjust moisture was large. (4) At the moisture content γ>14.5% the ratio of breaking load in grain of hulled rice and milled rice WLm/WRm showed almost the fixed value (WLm/WRm=7), and at γ<14.5% this ratio approached 1 rapidly, So at γ≈14.5%, the remainder WLm-WRm was the maximum value. And the ratio of tensional strength of rice to δLm/δRm was more remarkable. At γ>14.5% this value was more than 24. (5) The ratio of load to deflection WLm/δLm, WRm/δRm, was of a similar relation in the breakig loat WLm, WRm. But those deviations were large.
The anther has investigated to find out the rational tempering conditions in multistage drying. The tests were performed using a laboratory scale drier and tempering tanks that were provided with a psychrometer. The following results were obtaind. 1) The amount of moisture transfer between hull and hulledrice increased with increase of difference in initial moisture contents of hull and hulled rice at the beginning of tempering. 2) The moisture contents and the temperature of unhulled rice were closly related to the temperature and humidity of the airspace surrounding the grain in the tempering tank. 3) It was found that pre-drying period, constant rate period, and falling rate period existed in the first pass. The absolute humidity of the exhaust air in the drying period was highest at the beginning of the period. 4) The rate of drying increased with the increase of tempering times. In the case of 10min, drying, the rate of drying decreased with the increase of the tempering times when tempering times were over 3 to 4.5 hour. Rice qualities such as checking and germination were closely related to the tempering times. The rate of checking increased with decrease of tempering times and the rate of germination decreased with decrase of the tempering times.
In this study, some laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the removal characteristics of cherries from the spur by vibration. The used branch segments had one spur with (A) one fruit without leaves, with (B) several fruits without leaves and with (C) several fruits and leaves, respectively. The branches were given certain harmonic vibrations. A high speed camera (600pps) was used to observe the behavior in motion of fruits and leaves during vibration. The main results are as follows; 1. In the case of (A), the number of reciprocation required for the removal of fruits was very different, however, most of fruits were removed in no more than 0.2sec, under both the conditions of 2cm (stroke) and 1200cpm (frequency) and of 6cm and 600cpm. 2. In the cases of (B) and (C), the time required for the removal of the first fruit was almost equal to that in (A). Most of the time required for the removal of all fruits were below 1.5sec. 3. No relationship was found between the maturity and the time equired for the removal of all fruits in this experiment. 4. The sum of time when a fruit stem was being strained by lateral tension during vibration was mostly below 30% of the total time required for the removal of a fruit. 5. The behavior of a fruit during vibration in the case of (A) was classified into six patterns as shown in Fig. 5. 6. The behaviors of fruits and leaves during vibration in the cases of (B) and (C) were so complex that any regular patterns might not be found for the motions of fruits and leaves.
The roller-die type apparatus reported in preceding paper was modified. The compressive characteristics on chopped hay of Italian-ryegrass were investigated under various moisture contents and die temperatures for five different wafer dies and two different cube dies. The important conclusions of this investigation were as follows: 1. When hay was chopped at about 3cm in length, wafer was hard to be stratified and sometimes extruded, being divided lengthways into two or three. 2. The senses of sight and of touch could be a good index for the valuation of durability of wafer. 3. Wafer formation index I's were I 100°C>I 80°C>I 25°C, and I 20%>I 25%≥I 12%>I 30%>I 40%>I 50%, with the variation of die temperatunes and moisture contents of hay, respectively. The wafer formation index of rehydrated hay by spraying was considerably lower than that of ground-dried hay when the moisture content was the same. This phenomenon might be caused by water acted as a lubricant on the dies. 4. When moisture content of hay was higher than 20%, temperature of wafers did not rise above 105°C even if die was heated to 105°C or higher. When the moisture content of hay was 20% and die temperature was 20°C, wafers were not extruded in any dies. 5. Vertical compressive force V on roller shaft and horizontal tractive force H of die at dried hay of 20%m. c. increased rapidly with the increase of length of die, while the waferability increased little, and the wafer clogged in the die chamber frequently. For the wet hay of 40-50%m. c., on the other hand, long wafer die's resistance forces were nearly equal to those of short dies but waferability was advanced remarkably with the increase of the length of die. Therefore, the length of die had a significant effect on waferability at high moisture contents. 6. The waferability of tapered dies (No. 4 and 7) with smaller V and larger H, in which the width was 15% shorter than the straight dies (No. 1 and 6), was one rank lower at 20%m. c. but one rank higher at wet hay, probably due to transudation of some water. 7. The die (No. 5) inclining at an angle of 15° had smooth feeding of hay, required comparatively short passing time t through die chamber, and formed stratified wafers. At 20%m. c. its V value was very small but its waferability was equal to or slightly less than that of straight die. With the hay of high moisture content, its H value became large and its waferability was one rank lower than that of straight die. 8. Cube dies (No. 6 and 7) had bad feeding rate of hay and large t value as compared with wafer dies, and cubes were not extruded at 20%m. c. even when heated. The V and H values and waferabilities of cube dies were almost the same as those on wafer dies above 20%m. c. 9. V and H values decreared rapidly when m. c. increased and the maximum values were obtained at about 20%m. c. 10. The difference between vertical forces (or horizontal forces) by the shapes of die was increased with the decrease of moisture contents. 11. Passing times for tapered dies, increased at high moisture contents but passing time for other dies increased and their feeding rates of hay decreased generally with the decrease of moisture contents. 12. In case of the roller die passing time and feeding rate of hay varied with the experimental conditions, and the feeding rate had to be improved.