Analytical Sciences
Online ISSN : 1348-2246
Print ISSN : 0910-6340
ISSN-L : 0910-6340
Volume 2 , Issue 5
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Hiroshi NAKAMURA
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 399-400
    Published: 1986
    Released: July 27, 2007
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  • Teruo HINOUE, Hideo MURATA, Yu YOKOYAMA
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 401-406
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    Theoretical expressions of photoacoustic signals generated in liquid in normal and oblique incidences of a laser beam are derived by modifying the Rosencwaig and Gersho theory for the investigation of distribution profiles of light absorbing species at solid-liquid interfaces. Expressions for both incidences show that the photoacoustic signal magnitudes are dependent on instrumental, solvent and thermal diffusion factors. The results expected from the expressions are in agreement with experimental results. This modified theory is expected to be applicable to liquid samples with any transparency.
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  • Teruo HINOUE, Hideo MURATA, Masaaki KAWABE, Yu YOKOYAMA
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 407-410
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    Dependences of photoacoustic signal magnitude on thermal diffusion and solvent materials were examined for testing theoretical expressions for photoacoustic spectrometry in a liquid at normal incidence and oblique incidence (total internal reflection). As expected from the thermal diffusion term in the expressions, the signal magnitudes of opaque dye solutions increase with decreasing optical absorption coefficient in normal incidence and are nearly constant in oblique incidence. The signal magnitudes of dye solutions prepared from different solvents can be well explained for normal incidence by a solvent term in the expressions. However, some anomalous behavior of the signal magnitudes in oblique incidence seems to be due to adsorption of dye anions at a glass-solution interface.
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  • Fujio MORISHITA, Yasuhiko NISHIKAWA, Tsugio KOJIMA
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 411-415
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    A simultaneous determination of three species by a flow injection analytical (FIA) method using enzyme-immobilized open-tubular reactors in parallel is described. The design of the optimal geometry of the FIA system is especially important to avoid overlap of any pairs of peaks. Ours was carried out based on the Taylor-Aris equation. Despite a somewhat complex splitting-confluence flow system, reproducible results were obtained in the simultaneous determination of L-lactate, β-D-glucose and glycerol by the detection of the resulting common product, NADH. Assignment of the enzyme reactors to the channels should be made by taking into account the concentration ranges of the analytes to be measured and the differences in the rates of individual enzyme reactions.
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  • Katsunori KOHATA, Tsugikatsu ODASHIMA, Hajime ISHII
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 417-421
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    A new style water-soluble hydrazone, bis(D-glucose)oxalyldihydrazone (BGOH), has been synthesized by introducing glucose molecules into the hydrazone molecule, its chromogenic property and reactivity with metal ions investigated and it used for the spectrophotometric determination of copper. BGOH reacts with copper(II) to form a blue 1;1 complex with absorption maxima at 311 and 608nm in neutral to weakly alkaline media. On this basis, a simple and selective spectrophotometric method for the determination of copper has been proposed. The apparent molar absorptivity of the complex at 608nm is 1.55×104l mol-1 cm-1. The proton dissociation constant of the ligand and the formation constant of its copper(II) complex determined spectrophotometrically are 10-10.21 and 105.49, respectively, at 25°C and at an ionic strength of 0.1. Sensitization of the method by employing analogue derivative spectrophotometry is also described.
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  • Uwe SPOHN, Géza NAGY, Ernó PUNGOR
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 423-430
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    The triangle-programmed coulometric titration brings about the highly precise and reliable coulometric titrations with the advantages such as reproducible timing, high sampling rate and inexpensive automation. However dispersion in the analysis channel produces tailing which causes deviations from theoretically expected titration curves. When this can not be neglected calibration is necessary. In the paper some theoretical considerations for tailing reduction are describerd. Modified functional parts of flow through analysis channel have been constructed and the reduction of tailing was experimentally proved. With the modified analysis channel much better fit could be achieved between the theoretical and experimental curves even at shorter titrations times. With this improvement considerably smaller consumption of sample- and electrolyte solutions and higher sampling rates were attained.
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  • Uwe SPOHN, Géza NAGY, Ernó PUNGOR
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 431-437
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    A simple method for the selective determination of ammonious nitrogen and cyanide by means of triangle-programmed coulometric titration in a flow through system is described. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are transferred across a gas permeable membrane. After absorbtion in a suitable acceptor stream ammonium and cyanide ions are titrated with electrolytically generated Obr- and I2 respectively. The titration curves are followed continuously with a biamperometric flow through detector as a function of time. Linear concentration dependence was found in the ranges of 100μg l-1-50mg l-1 NH3 and 100μg l-1 -40mg l-1 CN- (r2_??_0.999). The standard deviations at 135μg l-1 NH3 and at 120μg l-1 CN- are 3.1 and 2.8%, respectively.
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  • Kousaburo OHASHI, Makoto INOSE, Kenji NAKAMURA, Katsumi YAMAMOTO
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 439-442
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    Molybdenum(VI) can be completely extracted with 2.0×10-2mol dm-3 5-octyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol (HO8Q) into chloroform from 3.0mol dm-3 nitric acid solution to give a yellowish complex absorbing at 380nm with the molar extinction coefficient of 1.14×104mol-1 dm3 cm-1. The extracted molybdenum(VI)-HO8Q complex is formulated as MoO2(O8Q)2. A 5-octyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol was able to simply and selectively separate and spectrophotometrically determine molybdenum(VI) in the presence of large amounts of such metal ions as iron(III), nickel(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), lead(II), niobium(IV), gallium(III), thallium(I) and copper(II). These ions did not interfere with the determination of molybdenum(VI) with HO8Q. The present method was satisfactorily applied to the spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum in an NBS standard steel sample. The extraction behavior of molybdenum(V) with HO8Q was also described.
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  • Kazuaki AKASAKA, Tateo SUZUKI, Hiroshi OHRUI, Hiroshi MEGURO
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 443-446
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    A simple and specific fluorometric determination of sulfites in rainwater was developed. Rainwater was collected in the field in a trapping buffer containing EDTA (pH 10.0), which effectively prevented the loss of sulfites by oxidation. Then its aliquot was labeled with N-(9-acridinyl) maleimide (NAM) and the concentration was determined on a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a fluorometer. The concentration range of the determination was about 1.0-100pmol on column. The determination required less than five ml of rainwater. The recovery of the added sulfite was almost quantitative.
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  • Isao YOSHIDA, Jun'ichi HIRASAWA, Hiroto TSUMAGARI, Keihei UENO, Makoto ...
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 447-450
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    Polyoxyethylene chain-containing nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100 (decaethyleneglycol mono(4-(1, 1, 3, 3-tetramethylbutyl) phenyl)ether; ROH) was derived to phosphate mono-, di-, and tri-esters RH2PO4, R2HPO4 and R3PO4; abbreviated as MTP, DTP and TIP, respectively) and the metal extraction behavior of these phosphate esters was studied in 1, 2-dichloroethane-water system with particular emphasis on lanthanoid(III), yttrium(III), and some other polyvalent metal ions. The extraction was carried out at pH 2 in the presence (for TIP) or in the absence (for MTP and DTP) of picric acid. The metal extraction ability of these extractants followed the order of MTP> DTP>TTP under these extraction conditions. In the extraction by MTP and DTP, the extractability of lanthanoid ions increased with the increase in their atomic number. Mean separation factor of thirteen pairs of adjacent lanthanoids was evaluated to be 1.7 for MTP and 1.4 for DTP. On the other hand, the corresponding values for TTP was almost unity. None of these compounds practically extracted other polyvalent metal ions except iron ion. Iron- (III) ion was extracted with MTP and with DTP to a similar level to those of lanthanoid ions.
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  • Akira MIYAZAKI, Kenji BANSHO
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 451-455
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    The application of solvent extraction-inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICPES) to the determination of ng ml-1 level of boron in water is described. Boron is extracted into 2, 6-dimethyl-4-heptanone (DIBK) containing 2-ethylhexane-1, 3-diol and determined by ICPES with BI 249.77nm line. To reduce the boron contamination or memory effect from a spray chamber, Teflon spray chamber is used instead of a conventional glass spray chamber. Mn(VII) and fluoride interfere with the extraction of boron. Large amounts of Os(VIII) increased the background intensity due to the Os 249.84-nm emission line. This spectral interference is removed by addition of reducing agents such as ascorbic acid, titanium trichloride and stannous chloride prior to the extraction. The detection limit (3σ, concentration factor=8) is 0.35ng ml-1. The relative standard deviations are 2.9% for 1μg of boron and 1.8% for 10μg of boron, respectively. The method is applied to the determination of boron in natural waters and geothermal brine.
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  • Kenjiro HAYASHI, Yoshiaki SASAKI, Shoji TAGASHIRA, Yoshiko SOMA, Tomoh ...
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 457-460
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    The coloration of iron(III)-thiocyanate complexes was enhanced by the addition of amine to acidic solution containing the nonionic surfactant. A coexistence of 0.25% Capriquat (trioctylmethylammonium chloride) brought about a 1.5-fold increase in sensitivity (molar absorptivity: 2.95×104mol-1 dm3 cm-1 at 485nm) of the spectrophotometric iron determination when compared to a method containing no amines. The constant absorbance was obtained within thiocyanate concentration range of 0.1 to 3.0mol dm-3. An optimal pH range slightly depended upon the thiocyanate concentrations. The pH range from 1.0 to 2.5 is recommended at the 0.20mol dm-3 potassium thiocyanate. A color of the solution was stable for 3h in the presence of 10%(v/v) Triton X-100.
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  • Haruo WATANABE, Noboru MITSUIHIDA, Makoto ANDOH, Motoko TAKEDA, Masako ...
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 461-465
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    A new chemiluminescence system for the determination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was developed. The assay principle of this system is that fluorescent chromophore produced from leuco-2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein (LDCF) by the reaction with H2O2 and peroxidase can be made luminescent by addition of bis(2, 4, 6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate (TCPO) and H2O2 dissolved in acetonitrile. So, H2O2 could be determined at a concentration of 10-9 to 10-5M as the amount of fluorescent chromophore, dichlorofluorescein (DCF). To show one application of this system, peroxidase activity was determined in the range of 10-3 to 1U/ml. Uric acid in presence of uricase was also determined in the range of 5×10-5 to 5×10-2mg/dl.
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  • Yukihiro KONDOH, Satoshi TAKANO
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 467-471
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described for the determination of carboxybetaine amphoteric surfactants in commercial household and cosmetic products. The surfactants are prelabeled with 4-bromomethyl-7-methoxycoumarin and then are separated by reversed phase HPLC with a gradient elution. The determination of carboxybetaines in shampoos was carried out by an internal standard method. The calibration curve was linear in the range from 0.007 to 4.6nmol. The relative standard deviation was found to be 1.0% for 0.46nmol injection. By using the proposed method, carboxybetaines in commercial household and cosmetic products were determined with high sensitivity and high selectivity.
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  • Toshiaki MIURA, Megumi KASHIWAMURA, Michiya KIMURA
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 473-476
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    A sensitive fluorometric method was developed for the determination of erythrocyte and serum argininosuccinate lyases (EC 4.3.2.1) which are useful marker enzymes in a diagnosis of argininosuccinic aciduria and hepatitis, respectively. Arginine, liberated from argininosuccinate in the lyase-mediated reaction, was determined by a specific fluorescence reaction with 2, 3-naphthalenedicarbaldehyde. This method is simple and requires smaller amounts of erythrocyte and serum samples. The enzyme activities in erythrocyte and serum from normal volunteers were 88.5±14.3mU/g hemoglobin (mean±SD, n=10) and below 0.26mU/ml serum (n=7). The activities in sera from patients with liver diseases were also measured.
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  • Tadayasu TOGAWA, Yumi AKIYAMA, Kyoko KANEKO, Atsuko NAKAMURA, Toshio I ...
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 477-480
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    A simple and selective method for the determination of S-sulfo group has been developed. The principle of this method is as follows: S-sulfo group is reduced by dithiothreitol to thin) and sulfite; the latter is converted to sulfur dioxide by acidification and absorbed to monoethanolamine solution by aeration. Then an adduct is prepared by the reaction of sulfite with p-aminoazobenzene and formaldehyde and determined colorimetrically by high performance liquid chromatography. Calibration curves for S-sulfonates were linear in the range of 2.5 to 100μM. The present method permitted the determination of S-sulfo group in normal rabbit plasma in the range of 23.3 to 47.3μM.
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  • Gen TAMAI, Hisanobu YOSHIDA, Hideo IMAI
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 481-485
    Published: October 10, 1986
    Released: June 23, 2006
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    An adsorbent gel, Butyl Toyopearl 650-M, is known to adsorb proteins in a given medium with mild hydrophobic interaction. Usability of the adsorbent gel for on-line deproteinization of HPLC analysis was investigated. The samples spiked in serum were some drugs which covered a wide range of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity. Two methods were employed; one is for hydrophilic compounds by adsorption of protein, and the other for hydrophobic compounds by direct adsorption of analytes on the gel. Both methods gave quantitative recovery of analytes regardless of the protein binding ratio; the relative standard deviation was 0.8-3.3%. However, for a mixture of anticonvulsants with a wide range of hydrophobicity, simultaneous deproteinization and analysis of all components was unsuccessful. This method of deproteinization was especially suitabble for the analysis of hydrophilic compounds in serum.
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  • Nobuhiko ISHIBASHI, Takashi MASADOME, Toshihiko IMATO
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 487-488
    Published: 1986
    Released: July 27, 2007
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  • Takashi OHSUMI, Hiroshi FUJINO
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 489-490
    Published: 1986
    Released: July 27, 2007
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  • Akira SANO, Masaaki TAKEZAWA, Shoji TAKITANI
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 491-492
    Published: 1986
    Released: July 27, 2007
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  • Tadashi IWACHIDO, Minoru ONODA, Shoji MOTOMIZU
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 493-494
    Published: 1986
    Released: July 27, 2007
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  • Tadashi IWACHIDO, Kenji ISHIMARU, Kyoji TOEI
    1986 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 495-496
    Published: 1986
    Released: July 27, 2007
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