A new principle to measure the magnetic susceptibility of a solution was proposed; it utilized the displacement of solution surface caused by the magnetic force applied to the solution. The interfacial displacement was measured with the sensitivity of 5 nm from a change of the interference fringes, so called Newton Ring, generated from the solution surface and an upper surface of a small plano-convex lens on the bottom wall of a cell. The surface displacement measurement was carried out in a homemade cell attached by one or two small Nd-Fe-B magnets. The performance of this method was investigated by the measurements of magnetic susceptibility of manganese(II) chloride solution and some lanthanide(III) solutions. An excellent linear relationship between the magnetic susceptibility and the interfacial displacement was observed for each solution system. Then, it was demonstrated that this relationship could be used for the determination of the magnetic susceptibility of solutions or the concentration of a solute by using the manganese(II) solution as a standard solution.
An on-line column preconcentration technique coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and -atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was developed using a mini-column (ca. 3 mm i.d., 40 mm length), that was packed with chelating resin (0.2 g) of iminodiacetic acid groups, Muromac A-1. After the preconcentration step, the column was washed with ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and water to remove major elements, such as Ca and Mg, and then eluted with 4 ml of 2 mol l-1 nitric acid. Eleven trace elements (Al, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Th and U) in seawater were determined by ICP-MS/AES. Recoveries for most of the elements tested were over 90%, although those for Al, V and Th were around 70%. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing a standard reference material of seawater (NASS-4, NRC Canada). The values of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb obtained with the present method showed good agreement with the certified values as judged from the standard deviation. The method was successfully applied to characterize seasonal variations of trace elements in deep seawater (DSW) and surface seawater (SSW). In addition, no serious decrease in analytical performance of the present column system was observed during the experimental period of about 1 year.
Solvent sublation has been studied for the separation and determination of trace iron(II) in various kinds of water samples. A strongly magenta-colored anionic [Fe(FZ)3]4- complex was formed at pH 5.0 upon adding 3-(2-pyridyl)-5,6-bis(4-phenylsulfonic acid)-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine, FZ) to the sample solution. Tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) was added in the solution to form the (TBA)4[Fe(FZ)3] ion pair, and an oleic acid (HOL) surfactant was added. Then, the (TBA)4[Fe(FZ)3] ion pairs were floated by vigorous shaking in the flotation cell and extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) on the surface of the aqueous solution. The iron collected in the MIBK layer was measured directly by spectrophotometry and/or flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. Different experimental variables that may affect the sublation efficiency were thoroughly investigated. The molar absorptivity of the (TBA)4[Fe(FZ)3] ion pair was 2.8 × 104 l mol-1 cm-1 in the aqueous layer. Beer's law held up to 1.0 mg l-1 Fe(II) in the aqueous as well as in the organic layers. The adopted solvent sublation method was successfully applied for the determination of Fe(II) in natural water samples with a preconcentration factor of 200. The application was extended to determine iron in pharmaceutical samples.
Ion-exchange chromatography using a high-capacity anion exchanger with UV detection was applied to the determination of nitrate in seawater. Major ions in seawater samples did not affect the peak shape and the retention time of the nitrate when an alkaline metal cation-chloride solution was used as an eluent at high concentrations (0.5 - 2 mol/l). At a wavelength of 220 nm, the peak of bromide was very small because of low absorption, while its separation from the nitrate peak was good at high concentrations. Among the eluents tested, lithium chloride gave the best separation of nitrate from bromide. It was estimated that the lithium ion had the least potential for ion-pair formation with nitrate, and its retention time was prolonged compared with the retention times when using other cations; with bromide and nitrite, such an effect was not observed. The results of shipboard seawater nitrate determination by our method in the South Pacific Ocean and Antarctic Sea showed good agreement with those by the conventional photometric method using continuous flow.
The simultaneous determination of metal ions using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a complexing agent and vancomycin as a complex selector was successfully studied by capillary electrophoresis with the U-shaped cell. The partial filling method (counter current mode) was used in order to gain selectivity of the separation, and also to increase the detection sensitivity. The effect of the vancomycin concentration on the separation behavior of free EDTA and metal products, and the effect of the EDTA concentration on the stability of metal-EDTA products were considered. Under the optimal condition, the reproducibilities (RSD) of the migration time and the peak area were less than 3.39% and 9.61%, respectively. With the high sensitivity of the method, Pb(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) in tap water were successfully determined, and the recoveries were 99 - 105%. The concentrations of these metal ions found in tap water did not exceed the maximum allowed concentrations regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Fluorescence polarization analysis (FPA) of a liquid-phase method was carried out with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored membrane receptor bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 (BST-1, CD157) as a model receptor for medical screening. A soluble receptor, BST1-Fc, was prepared by fusing the extracellular domain of BST-1 and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). The binding curves of BST1-Fc with a fluorescently labeled ligand peptide, or its three derivatives, were developed using ordinary FPA in the liquid phase. The obtained dissociation constants (Kd) were comparable with those reported as measured with SPR of a solid-phase method, except for one derivative peptide with Kd larger than 7000 nM. Competitive FPA was carried out, and it was demonstrated that a very weak interaction, which would be difficult to detect with SPR or other solid-phase methods, could be analyzed with both ordinary and competitive FPA.
Daunorubicin (DNR) is a significant antineoplastic antibiotic, which is usually applied to a chemotherapy of acute lymphatic and myelogenous leukaemia. Unfortunately, cardiotoxicity research in animals has indicated that DNR is cardiotoxic. Therefore, it is important to quantify DNR in biological fluids. A new algorithm, the alternating fitting residue (AFR) method, and the traditional parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) have been utilized to directly determine DNR in human plasma and urine. These methodologies fully exploit the second-order advantage of the employed three-way fluorescence data, allowing the analyte concentrations to be quantified even in the presence of unknown fluorescent interferents. Furthermore, in contrast to PARAFAC, more satisfactory results were gained with AFR.
The objective of this study was to determine the complexing capacity of four types of powdered commercial milks with copper(II) using square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Two were types of cow milk adapted for babies under one year (A and B), one was soymilk (C) and the other was normal milk (D). Milk solutions were prepared following the instructions shown on the milk container, and they were mixed with a pepsin solution simulating a baby's stomach conditions (pepsin and salts concentration, pH and temperature). Complexing capacity was determined by titrating milk samples with aliquots of a standard copper solution until the peak current due to solvated or free copper ions was increasing. Assuming a 1:1 copper-milk complex, the apparent stability constant was found using the pseudopolarogram method. The log K′Cu-milk values were 4.9, 5.0, 3.0 and 5.1 for A, B, C and D types of milk, respectively. Voltammograms of the milk solution as a function of copper added show that the binding properties of the four types of powdered milk studied were different and that saturation of the four types, occurs at different copper concentrations. Concentrations obtained were: 4.9, 5.8, 1.1 and 10.1 mM for A, B, C and D types, respectively. The best complexing agent was the solution prepared with powdered milk D and the worst was that of C. This is important for the bioavailability of this element as a micronutrient.
Crude extract of kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea gongylodes) was prepared by a simple procedure and its enzymatic activity and total protein concentration were determined. It was found that this crude extract is a rich source of peroxidase (POx) and has high specific activity. Cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone was used as a stabilizer in the preparation of the crude extract. The POx activity of kohlrabi crude extract did not vary for at least 2 months when deoxygenated and stored at 4°C. This extract was applied for the spectrofluorometric determination of hydrogen peroxide using homovanillic acid as a fluorogenic substrate. POx catalyzes the hydrogen peroxide oxidation of homovanillic acid to produce a dimer which shows strong fluorescence at 420 nm with excitation at 312 nm. In the optimum conditions, the calibration graph for hydrogen peroxide was linear up to 190 ng mL-1, with a detection limit of 4.4 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.48% for 50 ng mL-1 hydrogen peroxide. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of hydrogen peroxide in honey. The concentration-time profile of H2O2 produced upon dilution of honey was studied and H2O2 contents of some different honeys from various areas of Iran were determined.
A disposable amperometric immunosensor was studied for the rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae), the causative agent of cholera, employing an indirect sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) principle. Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) were fabricated (by using commercial and homemade carbon inks), electrochemically characterized and the assay conditions were optimized for capturing antibodies and antigen. Whole cell lysate (WCL) of V. cholerae was used to raise antibodies in rabbits and mice. The antibodies raised against WCL of V. cholerae were found to be specific, and no cross reactivity was observed with other enteric bacteria. 1-Naphthyl phosphate was used as a substrate with the amperometric detection of its enzymatic hydrolysis product 1-naphthol at a potential of +400 mV vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A comparison between the amperometric detection technique and the standard ELISA was made in terms of the total assay time, the amount of biological materials used and the sensitivity of detection. The minimum detection limit of the amperometric immunosensor for V. cholerae was found to be 105 cells/ml in 55 min, while ELISA detected 106 cells/ml in 4 h.
A carbon paste electrode (CPE) chemically modified with 1-[4-(ferrocenyl ethynyl)phenyl]-1-ethanone (4-FEPEMCPE) was employed to study the electrocatalytic oxidation of L-cysteine using cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and double potential step chronoamperometry as diagnostic techniques. The diffusion coefficient (D = 7.863 × 10-6 cm2 s-1) of L-cysteine was also estimated using chronoamperometry. The electron-transfer coefficient, α (= 0.40), for L-cysteine at the surface of 4-FEPEMCPE was determined using cyclic voltammetry technique. It was found that under an optimum pH (= 7.00), the oxidation of L-cysteine at the surface of such an electrode occurred at a potential of about 350 mV less positive than that of an unmodified CPE. The catalytic oxidation peak currents represented a linear dependence on the L-cysteine concentration. Linear analytical curves were obtained in the ranges of 9.0 × 10-5 - 4.9 × 10-3 M and 2.0 × 10-5 - 2.8 × 10-3 M of L-cysteine with correlation coefficients of 0.9981 and 0.9982 in cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry, respectively. The detection limits (2 σ) were determined to be 9.9 × 10-6 M and 5 × 10-6 M with cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry, respectively. The influences of twenty other amino acids, such as glutamine, L-glutamic acid, L-glysine, L-histidine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-arginine hydrochloride, L-aspargine, L-aspartic acid, S-carboxy methyl-L-cysteine, L-methionine, L-phenyl alanine, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, L-cystine, cysteamine and gluthathione, on the current response of the sensor were examined. The obtained results did not show any influence on the analytical signal of L-cysteine by these amino acids (except for cysteamine). The method was also used for the selective determination of L-cysteine in patient-blood plasma and some pharmaceutical preparations by using standard addition method.
A highly selective poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrode based on an N,N′-ethylene-bis(4-methyl-salicylidineiminato) nickel(II) [Ni(EBMSI)] complex as a carrier for a thiocyanate-selective electrode is reported. The influences of the membrane composition, pH and possible interfering anions were investigated based on the response properties of the electrode. The electrode exhibited a good Nernstian slope of -58.9 ± 0.7 mV decade-1, over a wide pH range of 3.5 - 8.5 and a linear range of 1.0 × 10-6 - 1.0 × 10-1 M for thiocyanate. The detection limit of electrode was 3.1 × 10-7 M SCN-. The selectivity coefficients determined by a fixed interference method (FIM) indicate that a good discriminating ability towards the SCN- ion compared to other anions. The proposed sensor had a fast response time of about 5 - 15 s and could be used for at least 3 months without any considerable divergence in the potential. It was applied as an indicator electrode in the titration of thiocyanate with Ag+ and in the potentiometric determination of thiocyanate in saliva and urine samples.
Phenanthraquinone monophenyl thiosemicarbazone (PPT), an excellent color-forming chelating agent, combines to Pb(II) to form a slightly soluble complex in aqueous solution. To determine this metal ion, a tedious and time-consuming separation technique, such as liquid-liquid extraction, has to be performed. However, the Pb(II)-PPT complex could be determined conveniently by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry at 520 nm in a Tween 80 micellar medium that has polyoxyethylene groups. After conditions, such as the pH, the concentration of PPT and the stability, were adjusted to their optimum values, the sensitivities of the Pb(II) ions in the Tween 80 micellar medium and in chloroform were compared. It was shown that the sensitivity of Pb(II) in the Tween 80 micellar medium was higher than in chloroform. The interference from different cations and anions was studied. Beer's law was obeyed over a concentration range of 0 - 40 µg ml-1. The detection limit of Pb(II) was 0.036 µg ml-1. The recovery yields of the lead(II) in the synthetic mixtures and water samples ranged from 98 to 99.8%, and their relative standard deviations (RSD) were below 4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of lead in certified reference samples, biological samples and in environmental water samples.
On the basis of the chromogenic reaction of chromium(VI) with 1,5-diphenylcarbohydrazide (DPC) on the surface of Polysorb C-18 beads and the sequential injection renewable surface technique (SI-RST), a highly sensitive reflect spectrophotometric method for the determination of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) was proposed. Considerations of system and flow cell design, and factors that influence the determination performance were discussed. With 300 µl of sample loaded and 0.6 mg of beads trapped, the linear response range was 0.02 - 0.5 mg l-1 Cr(VI) with a detection limit (3 σ) of 2.4 µg l-1 Cr(VI). The method achieves a precision of 1.3% RSD (n = 11) and a throughput of 53 samples per hour. The determination of Cr(III) was based on the same reaction for the determination of Cr(VI) after being oxidized by (NH4)2S2O8. The precision of the oxidation method was evaluated using a 0.2 mg l-1 Cr(III) standard, yielding an RSD of 2.5% (n = 11). The average recovery of Cr(III) oxidized was tested to be 99.1%. The proposed method was used in the simultaneous determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in water samples, and the error was less than 3%.
In this study, we attempted to control the timing of light-emission from bioluminescent bacteria, by changed cell numbers inoculated into medium. Luminous bacteria express bioluminescence when the number of cells reached a threshold. Inoculated cell density had an effect on the time of bioluminescence starting. Samples were prepared by varying cell density of inoculation. In the results, all the vials showed different luminescence profiles in the order of inoculated cell population.
Cationic polyelectrolyte of chitosan was used for the reversal of electroosmotic flow in capillary zone electrophoresis. The chitosan was dissolved in acetic acid solution, and stable electroosmotic flow was obtained at the chitosan concentrations between 50 and 300 µg/mL. Separation of inorganic anions was carried out using the dynamically coated capillary by capillary zone electrophoresis. Nine kinds of anions were separated and detected with the capillary. The electrophoretic mobility of the analyte anions decreased with increasing concentrations of chitosan in the migrating solution through ion-ion interaction, but the migration order of the analyte anions was not changed in the concentration range of the chitosan examined. The signal shape for the analyte anions was developed by using field-enhanced sample stacking with 10 mM sodium sulfate.
A chelating resin coupling Amberlite XAD-2 functionalized with dithizone is synthesized and characterized. Dissolved cadmium is field-preconcentrated using a minicolumn packed with the synthesized resin and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Five experimental variables are evaluated. The enrichment factor of 416 is obtained for 50 mL of sampling volume, and the detection limit (3 σ) of the procedure is 6.7 ng L-1. The precision (RSD) for 11 independent determinations is 1.97%. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of cadmium in natural seawater samples.
A quick and reliable approach was reported to measure the perfume loss in a commercial soap sample after continued use. This work firstly studied the fragrance loss profile in soap scientifically combined and compared with traditional olfactory evaluation. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), as a simple and effective adsorption and desorption technique, was selected here to eliminate the needs of organic solvents or complicated apparatus; more importantly, SPME kept the soap intact and made it available for continued study. Thanks to control of the sampling time and other extraction parameters, a consistent and reliable result was achieved, which was much better and more detailed than traditional olfactory evaluation done by human beings.
A new method for extraction and analysis of ethanol and methanol in human whole blood, urine and saliva samples based on headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) using silver sulfide (Ag2S) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coated on silver wire is described. Unlike commercial fibers, which are coated on fused silica, the proposed fiber has a metallic base to which the coating adheres very strongly. Due to metallic base, this fiber is very durable and is thermally stable up to 250°C. After optimization of coating composition and microextraction conditions, the fiber was used for sampling of methanol and ethanol from human body fluids prior to capillary gas chromatographic analysis. The high recovery (>94%), low detection limits (5.6 mg/L for ethanol and 12.8 mg/L for methanol) and excellent linearity (>0.9900) of calibration graphs made the proposed method suitable for this purpose.
A simple and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid-chromatographic method for the separation and determination of process-related impurities of celecoxib (CXB) in bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals was developed. The separation of impurities viz., 4-methylacetophenone (I), 1-(4-methylphenyl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione (II), 4-hydrazinobenzene sulfonamide (III) and a regio-specific isomer [3-(4-methylphenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazole-1-yl]-benzenesulfonamide (IV), was accomplished on an Inertsil ODS-3 column dynamically coated with 0.1% hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) in acetonitrile:water (55:45 v/v) as a mobile phase and detection at 242 nm using PDA at ambient temperature. The chromatographic conditions were optimized by studying the effects of HMDS, an organic modifier, time of silanization and column temperature. The method was validated and found to be suitable not only for monitoring the synthetic reactions, but also to evaluate the quality of CXB.
The reactivity of tyrosinase adsorbed on nanogold bound with 4,4′-bis(methanethiol)biphenyl monolayer self-assembled on a gold disk with catechol in a dipolar aprotic solvent, acetonitrile (AN), was studied by cyclic voltammetric and amperometric methods. Tyrosinase exhibited characteristics of a Michaelis-Menten kinetic mechanism. The tyrosinase attached to the nanogold continued to react with substrates in AN even when the water content was lower than 0.01 w/w%. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant Km of tyrosinase for catechol is 5.5 ± 0.4 mM (n = 5).
The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry has developed some new plastic certified reference materials (CRMs) for the analysis of mercury in polyester disks using XRF analysis. These CRMs (named as JSAC 0621 - 0625) were prepared by casting polyesters including a toluene solution of organometallic compounds as a standard. Concentrations of the five levels of mercury ranged from 0 to 250 mg/kg. Homogeneity tests of prepared disks had shown excellent results. Interlaboratory comparison study for the certification was performed by 15 laboratory participants. The z-scores in robust statistical method was applied for the evaluation of outliers. The certified values were assigned after discarding outliers. The uncertainties of certified values were determined as the confidence levels of 95%.