A commercial system for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) possessing a batch-type flow channel has been simply modified so as to conduct in situ SPR measurements under polarization of an Au sensor chip at constant potentials. The modified instrument can monitor electrochemical reactions of monolayer materials with high stability and high reproducibility. The redox reaction of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 6-ferrocenyl-1-hexanethiol (FcHT) induced the resonance angle shifts, the magnitudes of which accorded with the Nernst equation. The measurements in electrolyte solutions containing different electrolyte anions revealed that the SPR measurements detected ion pairing of electrolyte anions with oxidized FcHT. In cases of measurements in alkylsulfonic acid solution, simulation of the results based on the N-layer model has clarified that alkylsulfonate anions make an assembled layer on the FcHT SAM.
The adsorption state and morphology of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQ-2-COOH) deposited from acetone solutions (0.02 - 1.00 mg ml-1) onto atomically-smooth native oxide surfaces of Al(111) films were investigated by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The atomically-smooth oxide surfaces were prepared by vacuum evaporation of Al on mica substrates at 350°C, followed by oxidation in an oxygen-dc glow discharge at room temperature. It was found that AQ-2-COOH is adsorbed on the film surfaces in both the neutral and ionized state, where the amount of the neutral molecules increases with increasing concentration. This molecule is adsorbed as both a uniform nanometer-scale film, and as micrometer-sized particles with heights ranging from 10 to 200 nm above the film surface. The volumes of the particles of deposited AQ-2-COOH increased with increasing concentration. It is concluded that the particles are microcrystallites of neutral AQ-2-COOH and that the thin uniform film results from AQ-2-COOH anion formation on the film surfaces. A comparison of the results obtained by use of these surface analytical techniques clearly shows the features and advantages of these tools.
Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) microchip electrophoresis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein complexes (SDS-PC) using linear-poly(acrylamide) (L-PA) as a separation matrix was investigated. Prior to electrophoresis, channel walls of PMMA were modified with methylcellulose (MC) to prevent adsorption between channel walls and SDS-PC. Size-based protein separation (SBPS) was successfully performed using the MC-coated microchips with Ferguson plot-fittings. The entangled L-PA solution provided high resolution of peaks of SDS-PC when the concentration of L-PA was increased. Some investigations into the separation mechanism, such as the plot of the logarithm of mobility of each SDS-PC versus the logarithm of the molecular weight of the complex exhibiting linear behavior, indicated that the separation mechanism was dependent on mass discrimination, in accordance with Ogston model.
We have developed a new method for a fast and precise analysis of circle-to-circle amplification (C2CA) product for specific gene detection by microchip electrophoresis. In this method, we have added a new enzymatic step to the C2CA reaction, which could be carried out isothermally at 37°C. Compared to the original single-stranded DNA, the double-stranded DNA that is produced by this enzymatic reaction is more reliable for analysis by microchip electrophoresis. C2CA product was detected within 55 s with high reproducibility by this method which was successfully applied to the detection of 10-ng genomic DNA of the pathogenic bacteria Vibrio. cholerae within 110 s. Purification was found to be an indispensable step for the analysis of the C2CA product of genomic DNA samples.
An effective, rapid and economical CE/LIF (capillary electrophoresis/laser-induced fluorescence) method was developed and applied to the characterization of signal peptidase (SPase) enzyme, which is a target for the screening of new drug candidates. In this method, CE separates the product from the substrate and LIF selectively detects the fluorescence-labeled product and substrate. By measuring the increase of the product as a function of time, one can monitor the progression of the enzyme reaction. The progression curves were also used for screening inhibitors for this enzyme. The effects of various reaction conditions were also studied and discussed. In addition, this CE/LIF method was applied to the determination of the enzyme activity, the quality control of the substrate and/or enzymes, and the cross-reactivity of inhibitors to the enzyme. It can be concluded that this method is suitable for high throughput screening (HTS) assays because it can deliver fast, sensitive, quantitative, and reliable results.
Poly(vinylferrocene) (pVFc) homopolymer was synthesized by free radical polymerization, along with a series of pVFc-based copolymers containing either styrene, vinylanthracene or methylmethacrylate. This report details the electrochemical experiments conducted to examine the stability of the various pVFc based polymers, which is shown to be critically dependent on the extent of copolymerization. A trend was found that when the concentration of co-monomer was decreased, electrochemical stability was enhanced. Furthermore incorporation of a second monomer into the polymer chain produced a profound effect on the scan rate behaviour of the vinylferrocene moiety. As the concentration of co-monomer was decreased, the behaviour tended towards that of a diffusion controlled process. These results are of vital significance for the development of pVFc-based electrochemical sensors.
A laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (LA-ICPMS) technique utilizing a titanium-sapphire (TiS) femtosecond laser (fs-laser) has been developed for elemental and isotopic analysis. The signal intensity profile, depth of the ablation pit and level of elemental fractionation were investigated in order to evaluate the analytical capability of the present fs-laser ablation-ICPMS technique. The signal intensity profile of 57Fe, obtained from iron sulfide (FeS2), demonstrated that the resulting signal intensity of 57Fe achieved by the fs-laser ablation was almost 4-times higher than that obtained by ArF excimer laser ablation under a similar energy fluence (5 J/cm2). In fs-laser ablation, there is no significant difference in a depth of the ablation pit between glass and zircon material, while in ArF laser ablation, the resulting crater depth on the zircon crystal was almost half the level than that obtained for glass material. Both the thermal-induced and particle size-related elemental fractionations, which have been thought to be main sources of analytical error in the LA-ICPMS analysis, were measured on a Harvard 91500 zircon crystal. The resulting fractionation indexes on the 206Pb/238U (fPb/U) and 238U/232Th (fU/Th) ratios obtained by the present fs-laser ablation system were significantly smaller than those obtained by a conventional ArF excimer laser ablation system, demonstrative of smaller elemental fractionation. Using the present fs-laser ablation technique, the time profile of the signal intensity of 56Fe and the isotopic ratios (57Fe/54Fe and 56Fe/54Fe) have been measured on a natural pyrite (FeS2) sample. Repeatability in signal intensity of 56Fe achieved by the fs-laser ablation system was significantly better than that obtained by ArF excimer laser ablation. Moreover, the resulting precision in 57Fe/54Fe and 56Fe/54Fe ratio measurements could be improved by the fs-laser ablation system. The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that, even with the fundamental wavelength (NIR operating at 780 nm), the fs-laser ablation system has the potential to become a significant tool for in-situ elemental and isotopic analysis of geochemical samples including heavy minerals and metallic materials.
The sensitivity of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) to arsenobetaine (AB) was 1.3-times higher than to inorganic As. In order to understand the mechanism underlying this observation, the atomization processes for both chemical species were investigated in terms of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during the atomization process in GFAAS. The enthalpy change of AB was slightly lower than that of inorganic As, which suggested that AB was atomized more efficiently than was inorganic As. Moreover, it was observed that some co-existing organic materials enhanced the analytical sensitivity of inorganic As. The sensitivity difference between inorganic As and AB depended upon the mechanisms of their atomization processes.
A sensitive and variable-wavelength optical rotatory (OR) detector for high-performance liquid chromatography is presented. This design is entirely different from that of conventional OR detectors consisting of a crossed polarizer pair. By placing a polarizing prism and a retardation plate into a commercial circular dichroism (CD) detector, the OR signal was obtained. The Mueller matrix approach was used to prove the principle of the OR signal appearance. Sugars and 4-androstene-3,17-dione were chosen as test compounds. The limit of detection was below 0.5 µg of injected sucrose at 260 nm, which was superior to that obtained with a conventional OR detector. For 4-androstene-3,17-dione, which is CD active, and shows a large anomalous OR dispersion curve, our detector gave a large OR signal with approximately half the intensity of the CD signal at 340 nm.
In this study a new method for Pb determination in water using solid phase extraction coupled to a flow injection system and flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. The sorbent used for Pb preconcentration and extraction was silica gel chemically modified with niobium(V) oxide. Flow and chemical variables of the system were optimized through a multivariate procedure. The factors selected were buffer type, eluent concentration, and sample and eluent flow rates. It was verified that the aforementioned factors as well as their interactions were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. The effect of foreign ions was evaluated using a fractionary factorial experimental design. The detection limit was 0.35 µg L-1 and the precision was 1.6%. Results for recovery tests using different environmental samples were between 90 and 104%. Certified reference materials were analyzed in order to check the accuracy of the proposed method.
A sensitive and simultaneous spectrophotometric flow injection method for the determination of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) is proposed. The method is based on the effect of ligands such as 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) and diphosphate on the conditional redox potential of iron(III)/iron(II) system. A four-channel flow system is assembled. In this flow system, diluted hydrochloric acid (1.0 × 10-2 mol dm-3) as a carrier for standard/sample, acetate buffer (pH 5.5) as a carrier for diphosphate solution, an equimolar mixed solution of iron(III) and iron(II) and a TPTZ solution are delivered, so that the baseline absorbance can be established by forming a constant amount of iron(II)-TPTZ complex (λmax = 593 nm). Vanadium(IV) and/or vanadium(V) (400 µL) and diphosphate (200 µL) solutions are simultaneously introduced into the flow system; in this system the diphosphate solution passes through a delay coil. The potential of the iron(III)/iron(II) system increases in the presence of TPTZ, and therefore vanadium(IV) is easily oxidized by iron(III) to vanadium(V) to produce an iron(II)-TPTZ complex (a positive peak for vanadium(IV) appears). On the other hand, the potential of the redox system decreases in the presence of diphosphate, so that vanadium(V) can be easily reduced by iron(II) to vanadium(IV). In this case, the amount of iron(II) decreases according to the amount of vanadium(V). As a result, the produced iron(II)-TPTZ complex decreases (a negative peak for vanadium(V) appears). In this manner, two peaks for vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) can be alternately obtained. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) are 1.98 × 10-7 and 2.97 × 10-7 mol dm-3 for vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V), respectivery. The method is applied to the simultaneous determination of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) in commercial bottled mineral water samples.
A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Pu in highly radioactive liquid waste. This method uses Nd(III) as an internal standard, which enables us to determine the concentration of Pu and to authenticate the whole analytical scheme as well. A Nd(III) standard mixed with a sample solution and Pu was quantitatively oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) in a nitric acid medium, having the maximum absorbance at 830 nm. A spectrophotometric measurement of Pu(VI) was subsequently performed to determine the concentration compared with the maximum absorbance of Nd(III) at 795 nm. It was estimated that the relative expanded uncertainty for a real sample is less than 10%. The limit of detection was calculated to be 1.8 mg/L (3 σ). The proposed method was also validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry, and was successfully applied to analysis for nuclear waste management at spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.
Four chemically modified chelating silica gel phases (I - IV) with ion exchange groups were tested for their potential capability to selectively bind, extract and preconcentrate uranyl ions (UO22+) from different aqueous solutions as well as ore samples. Factors affecting such determination processes were studied and optimized. These included the pH of the contact solution, the mass of the silica gel phase extractant, the stirring time during the application of a static technique and the eluent concentration for desorption of the surface-bound uranyl ion and interfering anions and cations. All these factors were evaluated on the basis of determinations of the distribution coefficient value (Kd) and the percent recovery (R%). Percent recovery values of 91% for silica phase (II) and 93% for silica phase (IV) were identified in the optimum conditions. The proposed preconcentration method was further applied to uranium ore samples as well as granite samples. The determined percentage and ppm values are in good agreement with the standard assigned ones. The structure of the synthesized silica gel phases (I - IV) and their uranyl bound complexes were identified and characterized by means of infrared analysis, thermal analysis (TGA) and potentiometric titration.
The contribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) released from phytoplankton (Microcystis aeruginosa) during cultivation and biodegradation was examined to clarify the causes of the organic pollution of Lake Biwa. Two peaks, peak 2 (retention time (RT) = 32 min) and peak 3 (RT = 35 min), were detected in the algal DOM released from Microcystis aeruginosa during cultivation and biodegradation by gel chromatography with a fluorescence detector (Ex = 340 nm, Em = 435 nm). As these peaks correspond with the peaks detected in the surface water of Lake Biwa, one can conclude that the algal DOM released from Microcystis aeruginosa during cultivation and biodegradation makes a considerable contribution to the refractory organic matter in Lake Biwa. Three fluorescence maxima were observed in the cultivation of Microcystis aeruginosa: a fulvic-like fluorescence peak (peak A) with Ex/Em values of 320/430 nm, a protein-like fluorescence peak (peak C) with Ex/Em values of 280/360 nm, and another peak with Ex/Em values of 240/370 nm. The fluorescence material of peak C has a larger MW than that of peak A. The algal-derived DOM from Microcystis aeruginosa has similar fluorescence to fulvic acid of soil origin but exhibits mainly hydrophilic characteristics. In the biodegradation of Microcystis aeruginosa, a fulvic-like fluorescence peak (peak B) with Ex/Em values of 250/440 nm and a peak with Ex/Em values of 320/380 nm were observed.
A fundamental study on the adsorption of metal elements on Shirasu, a pyroclastic flow deposit distributed in southern Kyushu, Japan, has been conducted. The adsorption experiment was carried out by a batch method, and by using Zn(II) and Cu(II) under several conditions; the effects of the initial concentration of metal ions, grain size, and pH were investigated. At smaller grain sizes, the amount of Zn(II) and Cu(II) adsorbed increased. At higher pH values, the amount of Zn(II) and Cu(II) adsorbed increased. Plots of the adsorption isotherm indicated that the adsorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II) on Shirasu followed the Langmuir isotherm model, and the Langmuir isotherm constants, W0 and b, were obtained. W0 at pH 5.0 was approximately two-times larger than that at pH 3.0. This may reflect an increase in the number of anionic binding sites on the surface of Shirasu with an increase in the pH. The b value for Zn hardly changed with an increase in the pH, and for Cu the value decreased with an increase in the pH. These observations suggest that anionic binding sites have a low stability constant, since the apparent stability constant, b, is obtained as the average of stability constanst of all sites on the Shirasu surface.
A Ti-TPyP reagent, i.e. an acidic aqueous solution of oxo[5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrinato]titanium(IV) complex, TiO(tpyp), was previously developed as a highly sensitive and specific reagent for determining hydrogen peroxide. In the present work, the reaction specificity of the TiO(tpyp) complex to hydrogen peroxide was clarified based on ab initio calculations. The results provide a well-grounded argument for determining hydrogen peroxide using the Ti-TPyP reagent experimentally.
Environmental behavior of iodine is of great importance especially related to the release of radioiodine from the processing of nuclear fuel, nuclear accidents, etc. To understand the fate of radioactive iodine in soil-water systems, it is necessary to establish a speciation method of iodine in soil. XANES is one of the most important candidates and we compared the performance of LIII-edge and K-edge XANES for this purpose. In particular, fluorescence XANES with a multi-element semiconductor detector is essential for the measurement of XANES spectra for trace amounts of iodine in natural soil samples. When comparing LIII- and K-edges, LIII-edge XANES can be useful for the speciation due to its ability to distinguish various iodine species in their XANES spectra. However, at LIII-edge measuring iodine Lα emission, the proximity of its energy to those of Ca Kα and Kβ1 causes a large contribution of background X-rays in the XANES spectra, since Ca is a major element in soil. Thus, it was concluded that K-edge XANES is more useful than LIII-edge for the speciation of iodine in natural soils owing to its lower detection limit. The K-edge XANES was successfully applied to the speciation of natural iodine in a soil sample (iodine concentration: 55.8 mg/kg), showing that iodine is present in the sample as organo-iodine species incorporated in humic substances.
A characteristic redox potential-time curve of the iron(II)/nitric acid autocatalytic reaction was applied to a time measurement-determination for sub-µM levels of folic acid. The determination range was 7.5 × 10-7 - 1.5 × 10-5 M, the detection limit (3 σ) was 5.9 × 10-7 M, and the relative standard deviation was 3.6% (n = 5).
A potentiometric titration method using a cationic surfactant as an indicator cation and a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode sensitive to the cationic surfactant is proposed for the determination of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB-HCl), which is a cationic polyelectrolyte. A sample solution of PHMB-HCl containing an indicator cation (hexadecyltrimethylammonium ion, HTA) was titrated with a standard solution of an anionic polyelectrolyte, potassium poly(vinyl sulfate) (PVSK). The end-point was detected as a sharp potential change due to an abrupt decrease in the concentration of the indicator cation, HTA, which is caused by its association with PVSK. The effects of the concentrations of HTA ion and coexisting electrolytes in the sample solution on the degree of the potential change at the end-point were examined. A linear relationship between the concentration of PHMB-HCl and the end-point volume of the titrant exists in the concentration range from 2.0 × 10-5 to 4.0 × 10-4 M in the case that the concentration of HTA is 1.0 × 10-5 M, and that from 1.0 × 10-6 to 1.2 × 10-5 M in the case that the concentration of HTA is 5.0 × 10-6 M, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of PHMB-HCl in some contact-lens detergents.
A closed-form integral for the Arrhenius exponential was obtained by using an approximate relation instead of the usual one in a linear temperature program. The closed-form integral can be applied to predict the retention time very well both for a packed column and for a capillary column, in constant the velocity mode.
Oscillation in the bioluminescent intensity from a luminous bacteria suspension was observed. The time course of the luminescence intensity from a suspension containing luminous bacteria was measured. The oscillation mode changed with the liquid broth component. The optical density and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were measured simultaneously with the luminescence intensity, and a possibility was indicated that both diauxic growth and oxygen reaction-consumption resulted with oscillation.
A speciation method was developed for the determination of inorganic indium compounds in the particulate matter of emissions and from the workplace, based on selective sequential extractions. The main inorganic indium compounds that are expected to be present in the atmospheric particulate matter involving the industrial production of indium and in the manufacture of indium compounds were separated and determined. The procedure has been tested on standard reference materials. The indium recovery was in the range 93 - 105%.