Analytical Sciences
Online ISSN : 1348-2246
Print ISSN : 0910-6340
ISSN-L : 0910-6340
Volume 19 , Issue 10
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
Rapid Communications
  • Jun KAWAKAMI, Masaki OHTA, Yasuhiro YAMAUCHI, Kunio OHZEKI
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1353-1354
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    8-Hydroxyquinoline derivative 1 as a fluorescent chemosensor for Zn2+ was synthesized. Because Cd2+ is often found with Zn2+ in the environment and can form fluorescent complexes with chelating fluorophores, a potentially important property of chemosensors for Zn2+ is their selectivity for Zn2+ over Cd2+. The Zn2+ or Cd2+ complexes of 1 gave an emission band from the 1:1 complex, but the fluorescence intensity for Cd2+ was a half of that for Zn2+. Ligand 1 is suited for use as a fluorescent chemosensor for Zn2+.
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  • Masaharu MURATA, Chifumi GOUDA, Kentaro YANO, Shinichiro KUROKI, Tatsu ...
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1355-1357
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In vitro screening assays are useful techniques for the determination of receptor-mediated activities in environmental samples. In order to define whether environmental chemicals act as an agonist or antagonist to the human estrogen receptor (hER), we have constructed a biosensor based on ligand-inducible interactions between hER and relative proteins on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The his-tagged proteins, which were expressed in E. coli by recombinant DNA technology, were immobilized on an Au-electrode with Ni(II)-mediated chemisorption using the histidine tag and thiol-modified iminodiacetic acid. The resonance-frequency change of the protein-modified electrode was caused by association or dissociation with the hER relative proteins on the surface in the presence of estrogen. These results suggest that this sensor is applicable as a large-scale screening tool for estrogenic compounds.
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Original Papers
  • Hirotsugu MINAMI, Wanhong CAI, Tatsuya KUSUMOTO, Kaiji NISHIKAWA, Qian ...
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1359-1363
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Isotope dilution analysis of the sub-μg l-1 levels of selenite and selenate in natural water samples by microwave-induced nitrogen plasma mass spectrometry (MIP-MS) was performed. An appropriate amount of a spike solution containing 78Se-selenite and 78Se-selenate was added to the natural water sample to be analyzed. Both analytes in the water were then concentrated simultaneously by passing the sample through a column that was filled with an anionic exchange resin. After the concentration process, all of the selenite and some of the selenate on the resin were eluted by 0.03 M nitric acid. The residual selenate was eluted by 0.13 M nitric acid. The eluted sample solutions were injected into MIP-MS, and isotope dilution analyses were carried out. Selenite and selenate concentrations as low as 0.01 μg l-1 in the natural water sample were successfully determined by the proposed method.
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  • Mohammad A. MOTTALEB, Mohammad Z. ABEDIN, Mohammad S. ISLAM
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1365-1369
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A rapid and reproducible method is described that employs solid-phase extraction (SPE) using dichloromethane, followed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection for the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and cumene (BTEXC) from Buriganga River water of Bangladesh. The method was applied to detect BTEXC in a sample collected from the surface, or 5 cm depth of water. Two-hundred milliliters of n-hexane-pretreated and filtered water samples were applied directly to a C18 SPE column. BTEXC were extracted with dichloromethane and the BTEX concentrations were obtained to be 0.1 to 0.37 μg ml-1. The highest concentration of benzene was found as 0.37 μg ml-1 with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.2%; cumene was not detected. The factors influencing SPE e.g., adsorbent types, sample load volume, eluting solvent, headspace and temperatures, were investigated. A cartridge containing a C18 adsorbent and using dichloromethane gave a better performance for the extraction of BTEXC from water. Average recoveries exceeding 90% could be achieved for cumene at 4°C with a 2.7% RSD.
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  • Chiaki IGARASHI, Naotatsu SHIKAZONO
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1371-1374
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The major element composition, including two kinds of clay minerals and moisture content of sound-producing sand are reported for the first time. Sand from 33 beaches in Japan has been found to make sound. Ten sound-producing beaches were selected to compare with silent beach sand. Both sound-producing sand and silent beach sand are mostly composed of quartz and feldspar. The range of SiO2 content of sound-producing sand is not different from silent sand samples. This indicates that a high quartz content is not necessary to produce sound, although more than 60 weight percent of quartz is necessary. One silent sand recovered its sound after a 3.5 percent HNO3 treatment. Also, a small portion of clay minerals was found. A clean grain surface is a necessary factor for sand to produce sound. Illite was found in all silent sand samples.
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  • Toshiyuki OSAKAI, Akiko TOKURA, Hajime OGAWA, Hiroki HOTTA, Masaru KAW ...
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1375-1380
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of the temperature on the co-extraction of water molecules with Na+ from water to nitrobenzene (NB) in the presence of dipicrylaminate ion has been studied. The number (n) of water molecules co-extracted with a Na+ ion, as measured by the Karl Fischer method, increased from 3.1 to 5.2 with increasing temperature (6 - 65°C). This observation is in apparent contradiction to the expectation from simple thermodynamics because hydration is generally an entropically unfavorable process. Additional 1H NMR experiments for the selective hydration of Na+ in deuterated NB have confirmed that the association constants of water with Na+ indeed decrease with increasing temperature. On the other hand, however, it has been shown that water solubility into NB substantially increases with temperature. We conclude that the latter effect overwhelms the former unfavorable entropy effect, which results in a net increase of the n-value, as observed.
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  • Hiromit SAWAMOTO
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1381-1386
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The adsorption-desorption phenomena of surfactants were studied by measuring differential capacity-potential curves in a static solution and differential capacity-time curves in a flowing solution. The surfactants investigated were Aerosol OT, cetylpyridinium chloride, Hyamin 1622, tetrabutylammonium bromide, Triton X-100 and trioctylphosphineoxide. The differential capacity-potential and differential capacity-time curves for these surfactants showed different shapes, with and without peaks. The differential capacity-time curves were used to study the adsorption reversibility of the surfactants at a mercury electrode. The adsorptions of Hyamin 1622 and Triton X-100 were irreversible at all the potentials investigated. The adsorptions of Aerosol OT and trioctylphosphineoxide were irreversible except at the potential more positive than-0.2 V. The adsorption of tetrabutylammonium bromide was almost reversible at any potential investigated. The adsorption of cetylpyridinium chlolide was complicated, indicating different orientations of adsorption.
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  • Mohammad Reza GANJALI, Mahnaz ABDI, Hooshang PIRELAHI, Arash MOURADZAD ...
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1387-1390
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A novel imidazole membrane sensor based on 2,4,6-triphenyl thiopyrilium perchlorate (TTP) as an excellent charged carrier, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), the plasticizer dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and oleic acid as an additive is described. The sensor responds to imidazole over a wide concentration range from 1.0 × 10-5 to 1.0 × 10-1 M with a slope of +33.5 ± 0.5 mV per decade. The detection limit of the electrode is 3.0 × 10-6 M and it can be used for at least four weeks without any measurable change in sensitivity. The sensitivity of the electrode is high enough to permit the detection of as little as 0.2 μg/ml of imidazole without any significant interference from high levels of other components and especially, amino acids. The potentiometric selectivity coefficient data revealed negligible interference from common cations, anions and amino acids. The electrode has a relatively fast response time (<30 s), and good slope stability. The proposed sensor was successfully applied to the determination of imidazole in synthetic serum samples.
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  • Xiaojia HUANG, Junde WANG, Xueliang LIU, Runzi CONG
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1391-1394
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new type of ether-bonded packing for reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) was synthesized by reacting 1-octanol with β-(3,4-epoxycyclohexyl)ethyltrimethoxysilane, followed by coupling the product onto porous silica. The prepared packing was characterized by elemental analysis, solid-state 13C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Chromatographic evaluations were performed by using a mixture of organic compounds as the analyte and methanol-water as binary mobile phase. The influence of the composition of organic modifier on the retention behavior of basic compounds was studied. The hydrolytic stability of the packing between pH 2.5 - 7.5 was also investigated. The results showed that the new stationary phase has excellent chromatographic properties and good hydrolytic stability.
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  • Guoxiang SUN, Yu WANG, Yuqing SUN, Kaishun BI
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1395-1399
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful separation technique that is peculiarly able to determine the fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicine. The Capillary Electrophoresis Fingerprints (CEFP) of compound liquorice tablets (CLTs) was established to evaluate the quality of CLTs. The background electrolyte was a 50 mM sodium borate solution. The detection wavelength was 228 nm and a 14 kV voltage was applied. Hydrochlorothiazide served as an internal standard and temperature was 24 - 25°C. The CLTs were extracted by a 50 mM borate solution containing 10% (v/v) methanol. The results showed that CE was a powerful tool for detecting of the fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicine and their constituents. The quality assessments were performed to compare the correlation coefficients (R) and cos θ (C) between each batch vector of CLTs and the total standard profile vector (TSPV), which was the mean vector of all the batch vectors of CLTs with 1.0. The nearer to 1.0 was the R or C, the higher was the similarity. The values of R and C between the TSPV and each batch vector of CLTs produced at different factories were all above 0.9150. The values of R and C between every two standard profile vectors (SPV) from different factories were all above 0.9420. A good stability and reproducibility of the CEFP of CLTs were obtained in the study. Further, we first put forward a new parameter Q to evaluate both the quantification accuracy and the qualitative accuracy for a CEFP, which was verified by determinations of GHIA, GHEA, MP and SB in CLTs. The CEFP was successfully employed to assess the quality of CLTs produced at Kunming Pharmaceutical Factory to be good.
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  • Shaban El-Sayed GHAZY, Salem El-Sayed SAMRA, Abd El-Fattah Mohammed MA ...
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1401-1406
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Bench-scale experiments were conducted in the laboratory, aiming to remove aluminum from water. They were based on the use of powdered marble wastes (PMW), which are inexpensive and produced in large quantity, and thus potentially cause environmental problems, as an effective inorganic sorbent and oleic acid (HOL) as surfactant. The main parameters (solution pHs, sorbent, surfactant and aluminum concentrations, shaking time, ionic strength and the presence of foreign ions) that influence the sorptive-flotation process were examined. Good results were obtained under the optimum conditions, for which nearly 100% of aluminum at pH 7 and at room temperature (∼25°C) was removed. The procedure was successfully applied to the recovery of aluminum spiked to some natural water samples. Moreover, a sorption and flotation mechanism is suggested.
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  • Jiemin LIU, Guibin JIANG, Qunfang ZHOU, Jingfu LIU, Meijuan WEN
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1407-1411
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A laboratory-made micro-cryogenic chromatographic oven was mainly improved in size, which was controlled at 6 × 6 × 2.5 cm. A thermoelectric system was used to cool the capillary column instead of the traditional liquid cryogen. A cold block connected to the cryogenic module was directly solidified at room temperature with thermally conductive adhesive so that the uniformity of transferring heat was greatly improved, and the size of the system was reduced. Moreover, this system was inexpensive and convenient for both operation and control. The newly developed device coupled with headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was successfully applied to the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and its degradation products. During the analysis procedure, a 65 μm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used to extract MTBE and its degradation products. The extraction was controlled at 50°C for 30 min and the NaCl content in the sample was maintained at 35%. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.006 μg mL-1 (for MTBE) to 0.206 μg mL-1 (for methyl acetate) and the relative standard deviations (RSD%) were below 4%. The spiked recoveries for the developed method were evaluated using various water samples as a matrix.
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  • Tsutomu URYU, Jun YOSHINAGA, Yukio YANAGISAWA, Masahiko ENDO, Junichi ...
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1413-1416
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine the Pb/Ca ratios in the enamel of deciduous incisors, a biomarker of in utero Pb exposure, using pelletized bone certified reference materials (CRMs) as calibrants. The detection limit for Pb by LA-ICP-MS was 11 μg kg-1 demonstrating an adequate sensitivity for Pb in the teeth of unexposed individuals (0.1 - 10 mg kg-1). The precision for the Pb/Ca ratios in NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal was 3.4%. The correlation between Pb/Ca ratios obtained by LA-ICP-MS and those obtained by a digestion method was highly significant. We found one point calibration by a CRM was applicable for the quantification of Pb in tooth enamel. This method will be valuable for the assessment of in utero Pb exposure levels.
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  • Yongchao QING, Yiping HANG, Ruth WANJAUL, Zucheng JIANG, Bin HU
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1417-1420
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The adsorption behavior of gold (Au), silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) on nanometer-size titanium dioxide (NSTD) at low concentrations was studied using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). A preconcentration procedure of the analytes was carried out using NSTD as a solid-phase extractant before their determination by ICP-AES. The optimum conditions for adsorption were studied in detail, and under the condition that Au, Ag and Pd ions could be adsorbed and recovered quantitatively. The static adsorption capacities of Au, Ag and Pd on NSTD were 22.63, 14.06 and 11.82 mg/g, respectively. For the elution of gold, silver and palladium, a mixture of 5% thiourea solution and 3 mol L-1 HNO3 was used. The parameters tested included: pH conditions, contact time of the analytes with NSTD, flow rate, adsorption capacity and sorption kinetics. According to the definition of IUPAC, the detection limits (3σ) of this method for Au, Ag and Pd with an enrichment factor of 50 were (0.016), (0.006) and (0.012) μg mL-1, respectively, the relative standard deviations (RSD) were 8.7%, 4.5% and 7.4%, respectively (n = 6). Some geological samples were determined with satisfactory results.
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  • Masaru MITSUSHIO, Shusaku HIGASHI, Morihide HIGO
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1421-1426
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Gold-deposited optical fiber sensors with film thicknesses from 30 to 60 nm were prepared, and the responses to a wide range of a refractivity (1.33 - 1.54 refractive index (RI) units) were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The response curve of the sensor has two minima in the refractivity range from 1.33 to 1.44 and at 1.462 RI units. The former minimum is due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the thin gold film, and shifts to a lower refractivity as the film becomes thicker. The response curves of the sensors with film thicknesses of 45 and 60 nm agreed well with those calculated from SPR theoretical equations. Morphology observations of the surfaces of deposited gold films on glass by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a variation in resistance of the films with various thicknesses show the structure of the gold films. We concluded that the thin deposited gold films have many defects, and that the core of the gold-deposited optical fiber leaks light through the defects to the sample solution with the same refractivity (1.462 RI units) as that of the core.
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  • Ikuko MATSUBARA, Yoichi TAKEDA, Koji ISHIDA
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1427-1429
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A simple and rapid method for the analysis of trace amounts of gold(III), palladium(II), and platinum(IV) by the combined use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and anion-exchange separation was proposed, and successfully applied to the rapid determination of metals in industrial waste solutions obtained from the final process of noble-metal recovery factories, because noble metals can be selectively and quantitatively separated to a high degree by using a small column containing only a 0.7 g-portion of a common anion-exchange resin and a dilute thiourea solution.
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  • Juan M. BOSQUE-SENDRA, Eva ALMANSA-LóPEZ, Mª GARCÍA ...
    Type: scientific monograph
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 19 Issue 10 Pages 1431-1439
    Published: 2003
    Released: February 27, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The determination of stoichiometries and stability constants of complexes by means of UV-visible spectrophotometry applying traditional methods does not evaluate the quality of the values obtained, since the classic application of these methods does not provide coverage intervals. However, the use of chemometric techniques in different steps of the application of these methods makes it possible to obtain not only a real value of the characteristics of the complexes but a validation of such a value. In this paper a methodology is proposed that combines some traditional methods, three different regression models (LMSR, LSR and LSPR) and a small number of mathematical algorithms. This methodology is able to estimate, in a simple and rigorous way, the stoichiometry and stability constant of a complex and its corresponding uncertainties.
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