Analytical Sciences
Online ISSN : 1348-2246
Print ISSN : 0910-6340
ISSN-L : 0910-6340
Volume 35 , Issue 7
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
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Reviews
  • Sonali JAIN, Tarang JADAV, Amit Kumar SAHU, Kiran KALIA, Pinaki SENGUP ...
    Type: Reviews
    2019 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 719-732
    Published: July 10, 2019
    Released: July 10, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 22, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Significant numbers of newer anticancer drugs are regularly entering into the market worldwide to fight against different types of cancers. Analytical methodologies are being developed to quantitate those molecules in a variety of matrices during their drug development stages. Selection of biological matrices for developing bioanalytical methods is based on the mechanism of action, site of action, site of metabolism and route of excretion of the drugs or their metabolites. In this review, we have described the current scenario and advancements in bioanalytical techniques for quantification of different anticancer drugs in a variety of biomatrices with a special emphasis on sample preparation techniques. We have discussed and summarized different bioanalytical aspects for anticancer drugs, which can give direction to the researcher for choosing appropriate techniques for their quantification needs.

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Original Papers
  • Rui ZHAO, Yue WANG, Zhiqiang ZHANG, Yasushi HASEBE, Dongping TAO
    Type: Original Papers
    2019 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 733-738
    Published: July 10, 2019
    Released: July 10, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Molybdenite (MLN) was physically co-adsorbed with Ag nanoparticles (Ag) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for selectively sensing of ascorbic acid (AA). The composite was characterized with a scan electron microscope, a high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscope, an X-ray diffractometer, an X-ray fluorescence analyzer and electrochemical methods. The prepared MLN/Ag-GCE sensor exhibited good properties including a linear range from 3.0 × 10−5 to 1.0 × 10−3 M toward AA, a low detection limit of 1.5 × 10−5 M, good selectivity, excellent reproducibility, and good stability. The synergistic effect between MLN and Ag nanoparticles results in an enhancement of the electrocatalytic activity for molybdenite.

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  • Sima POURBEYRAM, Maryam SOLTANPOUR, Soghra FATHALIPOUR
    Type: Original Papers
    2019 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 739-743
    Published: July 10, 2019
    Released: July 10, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    An electrochemical phosphate sensor based on zirconium and reduced graphene oxide modified pencil graphite electrode (Zr/rGO-PGE) is proposed. The XRD, CV and EIS confirmed that GO was partially reduced on the PGE. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibited the layered and wrinkled structures for the rGO-PGE and Zr/rGO-PGE, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry showed the immobilized rGO was highly stable and had high activity toward zirconium adsorption. The prepared electrode was used for the electrochemical determination of phosphate. Based on the optimum condition using differential pulse voltammetry, the limit of detection and sensitivity for phosphate was obtained as [0.011(± 0.004) μM] (S/N = 3) and [622.4(± 9.6) μA μM−1 cm−2], respectively. The sensor was successfully evaluated for phosphate determination in human serum samples. In practical terms, the construction of this sensor was exceptionally simple, fast, cost effective and reproducible.

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  • Naoya ADACHI, Eri SUZUKI
    Type: Original Papers
    2019 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 745-750
    Published: July 10, 2019
    Released: July 10, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Simply structured conjugated compounds with cyanoacrylate (CA 14) and acrylonitrile (AN 14) terminal groups were synthesized by a Knoevenagel condensation reaction in one step and investigated for their recognition properties to p-toluenethiol by UV-vis, fluorescence spectra, and FT-IR measurements. When p-toluenethiol was added to CA 1, the FT-IR spectra revealed a cleavage of alkene caused by the addition reaction between p-toluenethiol and CA 1. An increase in p-toluenethiol concentration, a blue-shifted absorption band, and a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of CA 1 were observed because of the decrease in its effective conjugated length. Therefore, the most simply structured CA 1 was found to be the most effective and the most sensitive chemical sensor for p-toluenethiol.

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  • Daisuke ARAOKA, Toshihiro YOSHIMURA
    Type: Original Papers
    2019 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 751-757
    Published: July 10, 2019
    Released: July 10, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 08, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    For the rapid, easy, and safe purification of alkali and alkaline-earth elements from rock samples for stable isotope analysis, we developed a semi-automated, high-throughput procedure using borate fusion and an ion chromatography system equipped with a fraction collector. This HF-free procedure for the decomposition of silicate rock samples can be performed in a short time without isotope fractionation; the purification procedure enables the collection of baseline-separated peaks of multiple target elements and the complete removal of interference matrices from reagents and samples. The accuracy of this procedure was verified by confirming the correspondence of stable isotopic values of Li, Mg, Sr (δ7Li, δ26Mg, δ88Sr) and radiogenic isotopic values of Sr (87Sr/86Sr) to previously reported values in various geochemical reference materials in which the concentration range of Li was 7.78 – 86.6 ng g−1, that of Mg was 0.02 – 26.9%, and that of Sr was 178 – 7240 ng g−1. These results demonstrate that this procedure, which allows for the concurrent multi-isotope analysis of alkali and alkaline-earth elements in the same sample, is applicable to a wide variety of sample types.

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  • Ikuo UETA, Hiroto FUJIKAWA, Koji FUJIMURA, Yoshihiro SAITO
    Type: Original Papers
    2019 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 759-762
    Published: July 10, 2019
    Released: July 10, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 22, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This manuscript describes the determination of ammonia (NH3) in aqueous samples by purge-and-trap extraction using a needle-type extraction device with gas chromatography–barrier discharge ionization detector (GC-BID). NH3 was purged from the aqueous samples in basic conditions and then salted out with sodium chloride. Purged ammonia was trapped onto non-volatile carboxylic acid-coated macroporous terephthalic acid particles, which were contained within the needle-type extraction device. The analyte (NH3) was thermally desorbed by heating the extraction needle in the GC injection port, and detected by BID. After the optimization of both purge and extraction conditions, the linearity and sensitivity of the proposed method were evaluated. The limit of detection was found to be 2.0 mg L−1 at a headspace sampling volume of 100 mL. The method applicability was confirmed by the determination of spiked NH3 in tap water and river water samples.

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  • Dung Q. NGUYEN, Xueling SHAN, Maki SAITO, Kota IWAMOTO, Zhidong CHEN, ...
    Type: Original Papers
    2019 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 763-767
    Published: July 10, 2019
    Released: July 10, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 22, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We propose a method to evaluate the surface structure of Escherichia coli focusing on the doping state of bacterial cells into polypyrrole (PPy) matrix. We found that the orientation of doping states of E. coli O rough was different from those of other serotypes of E. coli cells, which had O-antigen on their outer membrane. The results indicated that more than seventy percent of E. coli cells having O-antigen was horizontally doped into PPy matrix based on the chemical structure and the placement of O-antigen. On the other hand, the percentage for horizontal doping state of E. coli O rough cells was only approximately fifty percent. Moreover, the cells of each E. coli serotypes were specifically bound to their own shape-complementary cavities on the microspheres, but the binding affinity of E. coli O rough was a bit lower than that of other serotypes.

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  • Tomohisa YAMASHITA, Kazuyuki YASUKAWA, Etsuko YUNOKI
    Type: Original Papers
    2019 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 769-775
    Published: July 10, 2019
    Released: July 10, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 22, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Fluidic chip fabrication technologies using three-dimensional (3D) printing have received broad attention recently. Herein, we describe a new method for fabricating polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fluidic chips using a 3D-printed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) template and polymer coating. In this method, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was coated on the 3D-printed template. This coated template was immersed in liquid PDMS, and subsequently the PDMS was cured. Space can be created between the template and PDMS by removing this liquid PEG from the channel. This space renders template removal easier. A flow path is formed by dissolving the template with a solvent. These PDMS chips are used for flow injection measurement.

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  • Xuting ZHI, Haifeng WANG, Baijun LIU, Xiaoping SONG, Zhanyuan LI, Jia ...
    Type: Original Papers
    2019 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 777-782
    Published: July 10, 2019
    Released: July 10, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 22, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Measuring the water content in natural gas is important for safety; however, complex matrixes make the results inaccurate. Natural gas contains hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which react with iodine (I2), causing Karl Fischer coulometric titration (KFCT) to give higher results. The KFCT method for the determination of water content of nitrogen containing H2S was investigated. A chilled mirror hygrometer offered a reference water content to calibrate the KFCT. The interfering of H2S was reduced by subtracting I2 consumed by H2S according to the reaction mechanism of ISO 10101; however, the modified results remained higher. A possible reaction mechanism with a stoichiometry of H2S to I2 of 1:2.5 was proposed. The improved KFCT method had an error of water content no more than (3 + 2%·x) mg/kg (x, water content in mg/kg) and had the potential of online monitoring of natural gas.

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  • Hisanori IWAI
    Type: Original Papers
    2019 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 783-787
    Published: July 10, 2019
    Released: July 10, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 29, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To avoid degrading the performances related to fuel consumption and maneuverability, an antifouling paint that contains Cu2O as a source of biocidal Cu(II) are applied to the bottom of a ship. However, increasing the Cu(II) concentration around a dockyard located in an enclosed coastal area has been regarded as an environmental issue. The ability of humic acid (HA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) for complexes with heavy metal ions was examined for removing Cu(II) from contaminated seawater. A glass fiber filter was functionalized by coating it with PEI and HA by taking advantage of the electrostatic character of these substrates. The resulting coated filter proved to be highly effective for removing Cu(II) from artificial seawater by simple filtration. The capacity and efficiency on Cu(II) removal for a filter coated with PEI was increased by further coating with HA. The removal of Cu(II) was dependent on the effectiveness of the coated area, suggesting that this functionalizing method could be applied to other forms of glass fiber materials.

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  • Yuki UTO, Kazuki SASAKI, Miki TAKAHASHI, Koji MORIMOTO, Koichi INOUE
    Type: Original Papers
    2019 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 789-792
    Published: July 10, 2019
    Released: July 10, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 29, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Illudin S from mushroom, such as Omphalotus japonicus and illudens, is a natural sesquiterpene analog with strong anti-tumor and antiviral activities. These illudins compounds are highly effective against various drug-resistant cancers that show extreme cytotoxicity an in vitro assay. However, it is difficult to obtain a sufficient amount of highly pure illudin S from a natural product by simple, efficient and low-cost purification techniques. Here, we offer to apply the high-speed countercurrent chromatography for the preparative purification of illudin S from mushroom extract. For a two-solvent system, the optimal condition of hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1/5/1/5, v/v/v/v) was optimized to obtain pure illudin S from a crude extract. This purified component was evaluated by liquid chromatography (high-purity >99%) and tandem mass spectrometry. The yield amounts of illudin S (1.3 mg/about 10 g Omphalotus japonicus) at one running are determined by liquid chromatographic calibration. It is concluded that by requiring a natural material and cost-effectiveness, our method represents a significant improvement over complicated techniques for the purification of illudin S from natural materials.

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  • Yu-ki TANAKA, Yuko MIKUNI-TAKAGAKI, Kouki HIDAKA, Satoko WADA-TAKAHASH ...
    Type: Original Papers
    2019 Volume 35 Issue 7 Pages 793-798
    Published: July 10, 2019
    Released: July 10, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 05, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Stable isotope compositions of calcium (Ca) provide useful information concerning metabolic alterations of Ca in human and animal bodies. For the measurements of Ca isotope ratio, great care must be taken for the mass spectrometric interferences on Ca isotopes (42Ca+, 43Ca+, and 44Ca+) from doubly charged strontium (Sr) ions (84Sr2+, 86Sr2+, and 88Sr2+). To obtain reliable stable isotope data of Ca, we developed a new correction technique for the mass spectrometric interferences by mSr2+ ions based on standard addition method. Addition of a small fraction of Sr onto a Ca solution shifts the measured Ca isotope ratios on a three-isotope diagram (i.e., δ44Ca and δ43Ca) along a mixing line defined by both the true Ca isotope ratio and the Sr isotope ratio. Therefore, the true Ca isotope ratio of a sample can be obtained as the crossover point of mass dependent fractionation line and the mixing line. With the present correction technique, precise and accurate isotope ratio measurements can be made on analyte solutions having a CSr/CCa ratio (concentration ratio) of 0.03, which is 6 times higher than the CSr/CCa ratio applicable to the conventional correction technique.

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