Analytical Sciences
Online ISSN : 1348-2246
Print ISSN : 0910-6340
ISSN-L : 0910-6340
Volume 6 , Issue 2
Showing 1-37 articles out of 37 articles from the selected issue
  • Yasuhito IGARASHI, Chang Kyu KIM, Yuichi TAKAKU, Kunio SHIRAISHI, Masa ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 157-164
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This review describes applications of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to the determination of long-lived radionuclides in environmental samples. Simultaneous determination of 232Th and 238U in biological samples is described in detail; in this procedure an internal standard, Tl or Bi, is adopted for correction of the matrix effect. Determination of 237Np in soil samples by ICP-MS is also described. It is chemically separated to ensure no interference from matrix elements. The detection limits are several mBq (several pg) for the case of radionuclides having a half life of thirty or forty thousand years.
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  • Yoshio KOSUGI, Tomoko YAMURA, Yoshiaki FURUYA
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 165-169
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    In order to study the medically important action of ammonium chloride toward chloroquine or 7-chloro-4-(4′-diethylamino-1′-methylbutylamino)quinoline, the proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of chloroquine have been examined using a 400-MHz NMR spectrometer. Quinoline ring protons exhibited highly resolved coupling patterns of the first-order. The distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT) spectra discriminated methyl, methylene and methine carbons in the diamino-chain where diamagnetic effects by nitrogen atoms are complicated. All assignments were fulfilled with carbon-proton correlation spetroscopy (COSY), besides homo-spin decoupling and DEPT spectra. The affinity of ammonium chloride with the chloro atom of the quinoline ring was observed in the proton NMR spectra. This fact seems to be related to the dose of ammonium chloride used to reduce the amount of chloroquine given to patients suffering from retinopathies.
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  • Kuniyuki KITAGAWA, Yasuo SAKAKIBARA, Shin TSUGE
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 171-175
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    A double-modulation technique (modulation of light source and magnetic field) was applied to a multielemental detector in the Voigt configuration. This was intended to overcome the problem that even in the absence of analyte atoms source radiation leaks through the polarizers in the orthogonal configuration, resulting in an undesirable offset signal. Four hollow-cathode lamps as light sources were operated with sinusoidal currents at four different frequencies
    (several hundred Hz) while the magnetic field was modulated at 60Hz. As a result, side-band waves appeared at f0±60Hz, where f0 was the frequency of the light source modulation. The signals from a solar-blind photomultiplier tube were converted into a power spectrum in a frequency domain after a fast Fourier transformation (FFT), followed by the detection of each side-band peak. Thus, multielemental Voigt signals were selectively discriminated without interference of the offset signal peaks at the light modulation frequencies.
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  • Kenji KATO, Yoshinori SUGITANI
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 177-181
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    Correlation photoacoustic measurements were conducted on layered materials with an X-ray beam of synchrotron radiation and a conventional X-ray tube used for excitations. Impulse response signals of layered materials, including laminated samples of aluminum and lead foils and those of polymer and lead foils, were measured by a cross-correlation technique. For the laminated samples of aluminum and lead foils excited with the synchrotron radiation, peaks with different delay times were observed as separate ones where the first and the second peaks were assigned to the signals from the surface and a lower layer, respectively. The interval between the first and the second peaks was proportional to the thickness of the surface layer, and the intensity of the second peak was dependent on the optical property of the surface layer. For laminated samples of polymer and lead foils, an additional signal from the intermediate lead layer was observed besides those from the surface layer and the deep lead layer. They were also examined by ordinary photoacoustic measurements with visible light excitation; the results were found to be consistent with the results from X-ray measurements.
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  • Takuji UI, Masanao KATO, Eiichi ASADA
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 183-186
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    A correction method for X-ray fluorescence analysis of the heaviest element in a light element matrix was developed on the basis of the linear relationship between the Compton scattering intensity and the reciprocal of mass absorption coefficient. Using the equation obtained here, the heaviest element in the sample was determined over a large concentration range by measuring only the Compton scattering intensity of the primary X-rays and the fluorescent X-ray intensity for the analyte element. In this study, we employed copper in copper compounds as analyte element; the obtained copper concentrations agreed with the values calculated from chemical composition within 5% relative errors.
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  • Javier GALBAN, Susana de MARCOS, Juan C. VIDAL, Carmelo DIAZ, Jose AZN ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 187-190
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    A method for the fluorometric determination of cadmium(II) is proposed. The metal reacts with Calcein in N, N-dimethylformamide and the cadmium(II)-Calcein complex formed presents an emission maximum at 534nm and several excitation maximum, the determination being carried out at an excitation wavelength of either 519 or 496nm. Over the range 1-70ng ml-1, the fluorescence intensity is linear with the cadmium(II) concentration; the obtained precision (relative standard deviation) is about 4%. The proposed method permits the determination of cadmium(II) at the trace level. The method was applied to the determination of cadmium in cadmium organic salts, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thermal stabilizers and PVC polymers.
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  • Tadashi MOCHIZUKI, Akiko SAKASHITA, Hideo IWATA, Yoichi ISHIBASHI, Nao ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 191-194
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    A flow injection (FI) technique has been applied to the trace analysis of metal samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Parameters such as carrier flow rate, injection volume and sample concentration has a great influence on the sensitivity, precision and analysis time of the FI/ICP-MS. A small volume (240μl) of nickel-base alloy solutions containing up to 0.75% (m/v) was introduced into an ICP-MS instrument by the flow of carrier solution. The optimized procedure was applied to the determination of Tl, Pb and Bi in standard nickel-base alloys of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The result was compared with that of the continuous sample nebulization method. The FI method gave improved precision as well as high sensitivity. The precision ranged from 2.0 to 8.2 (RSD, %) for the elements containing 0.25-11.7ppm. Detection limits were 0.001-0.04ppm.
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  • Hiroaki TAO, Akira MIYAZAKI, Kenji BANSHO
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 195-199
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    In order to reduce the plasma fluctuation caused by large amounts of hydrogen, a hydrogen-separation membrane module, consisting of hollow fibers of an aromatic polyimide, was connected to a continuous-flow mode hydride generator. To overcome the relatively long time necessary to reach a steady-state signal and the large memory effect at room temperature, the membrane was operated at high temperature (ca. 80°C). The proposed hydride generation
    system was successfully applied to a low-power ICP (>0.6kW). The detection limits for AsH3, GeH4, SbH3 and SnH4 were improved by a factor of about three at the maximum. The relative standard deviations of emission intensities at 50ng/ml were below 1%.
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  • Shaban E. GHAZY
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 201-205
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    The flotation of silver ions from aqueous solutions using butylamine (Bu-A) and oleic acid (HOL) as a surfactant has been investigated. The effects of HOL and Bu-A concentrations, pH and temperature on flotation efficiency were examined. Nearly 99% of silver ions was floated under the optimum conditions. The addition of some cations to the flotation medium markedly affects the floatability of silver ions. This effect could be eliminated by adding EDTA. The technique was successfully extended to float silver ions from a synthetic mixture. In the determination of silver by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Bu-A was used to eliminate the interference effects of some organic compounds by adding it to both the sample and the standard solutions. The mechanism of this elimination is discussed. Moreover, estimation of silver ions in synthetic mixtures was demonstrated.
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  • Kitao FUJIWARA, Ri-e KOJYO, Hiroyuki TSUBOTA, Kazuhiko SEKI
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 207-209
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    Magneto-optic interaction of diluted magnetite colloid was inspected in the wave-guide capillary cells under an 1.1T magnetic field. The transmittances of the lights polarized parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field decrease and increase by applying the magnetic field, respectively. Magnitude of this effect is proportional to the concentration of magnetite and the length of the capillary. This phenomenon also depends on the wavelength of the source light.
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  • Yoshihiro KUDO, Yasuyuki TAKEDA, Hiroaki MATSUDA
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 211-214
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    Ion-pair extractions of alkali picrates (MPi) by three crown compounds (benzo-15-crown-5 (B15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6) and benzo-18-crown-6 (B18C6)) and acyclic polyether (1, 2-bis[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]benzene (ACB18C6)) were performed in H2O/CHCl3, C6H6/H2O and H2O/CCl4 systems at 25°C. The absorption maxima (λmax) of the 1:1
    ion-pair complexes of MPi with the crown compounds were measured in water-saturated organic phases at 25°C. The magnitude λmax value increased with an increase in the crystal ionic radii of the metals trapped in the crown ether cavities (Li_??_Na<K≤Rb_??_Cs), the ring sizes of the crown compounds, (B15C5<B18C6 for Na complexes), and solvent polarity (CCl4<C6H6<CHCl3). The λmax-differences among B18C6, 18C6 and ACB18C6 were not observed in CHCl3. The apparent overall extraction constant, [M(B18C6)+Pi-]o/[M+][B18C6]o[Pi-], for K+ was larger than that of Rb+. The sequence of selectivity of B18C6 for K+ was CHCl3<C6H6<CCl4. This result corresponds to the strength of the interaction between K(B18C6)+ and Pi- in a given solvent system.
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  • Shoji MOTOMIZU, Mitsuko OSHIMA, Naomi YONEDA, Tadashi IWACHIDO
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 215-220
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    Calcium in water was determined by a spectrophotometric method involving flow injection coupled with solvent extraction. An ion association complex which formed between a calcium-crown complex ion and a dye anion was extracted into an organic solvent and the absorbance of the organic phase was measured after phase separation. Six derivatives of alkylaminophenylazobenzene sulfonic acid and tetrabromophenolphthalein ethylester were examined as counter anions with dicyclohexano-24-crown-8, and a mixture of benzene and chlorobenzene was examined as an extraction solvent. A suitable method for calcium determination in water was one with Propyl Orange and a (1+1 v/v) mixture of benzene and chlorobenzene. The carrier stream was distilled water, while the reagent stream was
    comprised of a dye anion and lithium hydroxide. The sampling rate was 20-30 per hour. The calibration graph was linear at concentrations up to 10-4M using samples of 100μl. The detection limit corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 2×10-7M; the relative standard deviation was 0.99% for 10 injections of 5×10-5M calcium solution. Calcium in river water was determined satisfactorily by the proposed method.
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  • Masayuki UTO, Elias K. MICHAELIS, Ing F. HU, Yoshio UMEZAWA, Theodore ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 221-225
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    A glutamate receptor ion channel (RIC) protein, isolated and purified from rat brains, was reconstituted into artificial bilayer lipid membranes. This RIC protein was found to serve as a recognition site for a sensitive detection of L-glutamate. Two types of RIC sensors were tested. When the RIC was reconstituted as a single protein in a patch-clamp membrane configuration, digital "off/on" signals were obtained for L-glutamate. With multiple proteins as a multi-channel sensor, the integrated do signals were related to the glutamate concentration. The results from these two configurations are further discussed in terms of signal amplification and concentration dependence of the sensor.
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  • Koji TOHDA, Koji SUZUKI, Nobutaka KOSUGE, Hitoshi NAGASHIMA, Kazuhiko ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 227-232
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    Five kinds of monensin derivatives were synthesized by chemical modifications of the natural carboxylic polyether antibiotic monensin. Their usefulness as active compounds (Na+-ionophores) for Na+-selective poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC)-matrix membrane electrodes was examined. The electrodes based on monensin ester derivatives exhibited high Na+-selectivity. Among them, the electrode based on the highly lipophilic monensin dodecyl ester(log K0 (partition constant)=8.7) had enough Na+-selectivity to determine the Na+-concentration in serum(log KpotNaK=-1.1, log KpotNaMg=-4.0 and log KpotNaCa=-3.6); the electrode gave a Nernstian response (59.0mV/pNa) ranging from 5×10-6 to 1M Na+. The response potential of this electrode to a 0.1M Na+ solution drifted within ±0.01mV/h. The values of the Na+-concentration in artificial and real serum samples were successfully determined with the monensin dodecyl ester-based electrode using diisodecylphthalate as the electrode membrane solvent.
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  • Abdulrahman S. ATTIYAT, Azza M. KADRY, Hishmatt R. HANNA, Yehia A. IBR ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 233-237
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    Three compounds of a new class of ionophores, 14-cyclic dioxadiamides, were synthesized and tested for potentiometric selectivity for lithium ion in poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrodes. Four plasticizers were studied and the addition of trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) was considered. One ionophore exhibited a sodium/lithium selectivity, KpotLi, Na, by the matched potential method, of 0.012 in the presence of 1% TOPO, using o-nitrophenylphenyl ether as plasticizer. Selectivities are reported for sodium, potassium, ammonium, barium and calcium ions with respect to lithium ions.
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  • Haruko IKEUCHI, Hiroshi UCHIDA, Gen P. SATO
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 239-243
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    he diffusion coefficients of electroactive species in electrolyte solutions can be conveniently determined by means of normal pulse polarography. A practical expression for the diffusion current is presented. For good results, the radius of the mercury drop electrode should be larger than ca. 0.33mm at the time of pulse application, tp; tp should be longer than 2s. The mercury flow rate must be determined under polarographic conditions. The results for cadmium(II) and thallium(I) ions in aqueous potassium nitrate solutions at 25°C were slightly larger than the reference values, though the discrepancy was less than 3%.
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  • N. Abo El-MAALI, J.-C. VIRE, G. J. PATRIARCHE, M. A. GHANDOUR, G. D. C ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 245-250
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    Two nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, Piroxicam and Tenoxicam, are shown to be strongly adsorbed on mercury electrodes. Using this phenomenon to accumulate these compounds at the static mercury-drop electrode prior to square-wave voltammetric measurement, sub-nanomole sensitivities are readily achieved. A preconcentration potential of -0.6V vs. Ag/AgCl/KCl(s) was used for both drugs. The adsorptive stripping response was evaluated with respect
    to accumulation time and potential, analyte concentration, and electrolyte nature and concentration. Ascorbic acid up to 1×10-4M has no effect on the Piroxicam peak, but results in enhanced response for the Tenoxicam adsorptive stripping peak. Studies were performed at pH 4.0 and 2.0 for the two drugs; at these values two and four electrons are transferred, respectively. The detection limit was 7×10-10M for Piroxicam and 1×10-10M for Tenoxicam, the latter being even more sensitive (5×10-11M) in the presence of ascorbic acid. Applicability of square wave voltammetry to urine samples was demonstrated. The detection limit is 5×10-8M and 5×10-9M (in presence of 1×10-5M ascorbic acid) for Piroxicam and Tenoxicam, respectively, in urine samples diluted ten-fold with the supporting electrolyte.
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  • Jianwei Mo, Duan JIN, Jianhong PEI, Zaofan ZHAO
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 251-255
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    The (FeNO)2+ complex can be formed in a solution that contains ferrous ion (ammonium ferrous sulfate), nitrite (sodium nitrite) and ascorbic acid. With a dropping mercury electrode, this complex has a catalytic wave at -0.58V which can be used for the determination of trace nitrite in the range of 1×10-7 to 4×10-4M with the detection limit of 5×10-8M. The function of ascorbic acid is to reduce NO2- to NO quantitatively for complete formation of the electroactive complex. The mechanism of the electrode process has been studied by linear sweep polarography, direct current polarography, cyclic voltammetry and spectrophotometry.
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  • Yuzuru HAYASHI
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 257-260
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    The optimal separation of peaks in column chromatography is derived from information theory based on FUMI. The optimal is shown to be described by the chromatographic resolution Rs. The information theory of column chromatography demonstrates that optimization based on FUMI can entail optimization on Rs as a special case. The peak capacity can also be derived theoretically from FUMI.
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  • Junichi GOTO, Nobuharu GOTO, Gang SHAO, Motofumi ITO, Akiko HONGO(n&ea ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 261-264
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    Two sensitive and moderately reactive chiral derivatization reagents having a binaphthalene moiety as a fluorophore and carbonyl cyanide as a reacting group toward enantiomeric alcohols have been developed. The derivatization reagents, (-)- and (+)-2-methyl-1, 1′-binaphthalene-2′-carbonyl cyanides, were prepared from dimethyl-1, 1′-binaphthalene-2, 2′-dicarboxylate in several steps. Enantiomeric alcohols underwent facile derivatization with these reagents under mild condition. The diastereomeric esters formed from enantiomeric β-hydroxy acids and β-blockers were efficiently resolved by high performance liquid chromatography on a normal phase column. The resulting esters were highly responsive to a fluorescence detector (excitation wavelength 342nm; emission wavelength 420nm), the limit of detection being 200pg.
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  • Hiroaki KUBO, Yuesheng HUANG, Toshio KINOSHITA
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 265-267
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    An ultramicro method is described for the determination of peptides by high performance liquid chromatography with coulometric detection. The method is based on the formation of electrochemically oxidizable copper(I) ion by reaction of peptides with copper(II) ion in an alkaline medium containing ammonia in postcolumn reaction. Di- and tripeptides used as model compounds (6 species) are separated on a reversed phase column. The detection limit was 200pg for glycylglycylglycine. Prolylglycine was detected, but not glycylproline, which has no amide-bond in the molecule.
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  • Junko IIDA, Takeshi MURATA
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 269-272
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    A buffer system consisting of formic acid and ammonium formate was investigated as a strongly acidic mobile phase for thermospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (TSP LC/MS). The behavior of the buffer was examined with regard to the relation between vaporizer control temperature and vaporizer tip temperature. Total intensity of solvent ions and sensitivity for target compounds as a function of vaporizer control temperature were also presented. The behavior of the formic acid-ammonium formate buffer was similar to that of an ammonium acetate aqueous solution, the usual mobile phase for TSP LC/MS. The applicability of the new buffer system to the compounds which required an acidic mobile phase was investigated. The new buffer system was found to reduce the peak tailing of amines and retain acids better than an ammonium acetate solution or an acetic acid-ammonium acetate buffer system.
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  • Junko IIDA, Takeshi MURATA
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 273-276
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    Thermospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with a new, strongly acidic mobile phase, i.e., formic acid-ammonium formate buffer system, was applied to the analysis of five kinds of water-soluble vitamins. Their detection limits, linearity and reproducibilities were examined. The mass spectra of the individual vitamins gave MH+ ions; some of these showed fragment ions giving information on molecular structure. Detection limits (S/N)>10) were 10-100pg; reproducibility of 1.2-4.9% (RSD) was obtained for 10μl syringe injections, based on peak areas. The water-soluble vitamins in a commercial health drink and in fermented soybean paste miso were determined by this method.
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  • Tadashi IWACHIDO, Mitsuyoshi SHINOMIYA, Michio ZENKI
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 277-282
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    The factors affecting the ion chromatographic separation of the alkaline earth metal cations on silica gel columns were investigated using different types of dicarboxylic acids as retention modifiers. The mobile phase pH and acid concentration showed marked influence on the separation of the analytes. When a 0.002mol dm-3 lithium oxalate solution of pH 7 was used as a mobile phase, the major four cations in river water (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) were completely separated on a Nucleosil column (50mm×4.6mm id.) within about 16min.
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  • Akira OHKI, Shigeori TAKENAKA, Kadzuya TSUKADA, Shigeru MAEDA, Makoto ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 283-286
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    By using a liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-hexylbiphenyl (abbreviated as CHB), as an extracting solvent, the following ion-pair extraction reaction was investigated: (QClO4)o+(Pi-)w_??_(QPi)o+(ClO4-)w (Q+: cationic species such as Crystal Violet (CV+), Methylene Blue (MB+) and tetrabutylammonium (TBA+); Pi-: picrate anion; subscripts o and w denote organic and aqueous phases, respectively). The above extraction equilibrium was confirmed to hold in the case of a liquid crystal (CHB) solvent as well as in an ordinary solvent (hexylbenzene/cyanobenzene 1:1 mixture for comparison; abbreviated as MIX). The dependence of the extraction constant on the temperature was investigated. Only in the CV+-CHB system, the extraction constant discontinuously changed around a phase transition temperature of CHB (29°C; nematic/liquid). When an MIX solvent was used, such a phenomenon was not observed; the extraction constant gradually increased with an increase in temperature. The effect of the molecular orientation of the extracting solvent is discussed.
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  • Hirochika NAGANAWA, Haruaki MATSUURA, Yasushi OGIHARA, Satoshi KUSAKAB ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 287-289
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    The solvent extraction of p-nitrophenol from aqueous acid solutions into cyclohexane with trioctylphosphine (TOP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), triphenylphosphine (TPP), triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) and triphenylphosphine sulfide (TPPS) was examined. The results were compared with those with trioctylamine (TOA). The extracted p-nitrophenol was found to form a 1:1 hydrogen-bonded associate with bases in the organic phase. The association
    constant in the organic phase was greater in the order TOPO>TPPO>TOP>TOA>TPPS>TPP. The ability of an extractant for an acid is considered from its chemical properties as a base in the organic phase. It was concluded that it may be related to the association constant with the acid in the solvent.
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  • Akira OHKI, Masanobu YAMURA, Yuko SUMIYOSHI, Makoto TAKAGI, Shigeru MA ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 291-294
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    The extraction of phthalate isomer dianions (phthalate, isophthalate and terephthalate) was studied by the use of dicationic anion-exchange extractants, polymethylenebis(trioctylphosphonium)s (abbreviated as CnBP). Extraction equilibrium studies confirmed that the extraction reaction of phthalate isomers under high pH condition (pH>11) occurs via the formation of a 1:1 ion-pair complex between CnBP and the phthalate isomer. The extraction ability of dicationic extractants was greatly superior to that of conventional monocationic extractants. Further, the extraction ability of dicationic extractants was dependent on the length of the bridging methylene-chain between two phosphonium cationic centers within the extractants. In the extractions of phthalate, isophthalate and terephthalate, the most favorable extractants were C4BP, C6BP and C8BP, respectively. Thus, since the distance between the two anionic centers of phthalate isomer is longer, the bridge-chain length of the most preferable extractant is longer.
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  • Shigeto NAKAMURA, Yosyong SURAKITBANHARN, Kenichi AKIBA
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 295-299
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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    Solvent extraction of europium(III) and thulium(III) has been investigated by high molecular weight β-diketone derivatives, such as dodecylbenzoyltrifluoroacetone (LIX51), benzoylisooctanoylmethane (LIX54) and dibenzoylmethane (DBM), in the presence of neutral donors, such as tributyl phosphate (TBP) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). The distribution ratio was largely enhanced by a synergistic effect. Tris-β-diketonates forms mono- and di-adducts with TBP and TOPO depending on the kind of β-diketones and central metals. The extraction constants with β-diketones alone were of the order LIX 51_??_LIX 54>DBM, whereas the adduct formation constants followed the order LIX 51>DBM>LIX 54. The separation factor between thulium and europium decreased in the presence of neutral ligands.
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  • Totaro IMASAKA, Kouji TASHIRO, Nobuhiko ISHIBASHI
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 301-302
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 27, 2007
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  • Tadashi MOCHIZUKI, Akiko SAKASHITA, Hideo IWATA, Takamasa TAKAHASHI
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 303-305
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 27, 2007
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  • Tadashi IWACHIDO, Naomi HAYAMA
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 307-308
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 27, 2007
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  • A.-Javier ALLER, Dalmacio BONILLA
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 309-311
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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  • Edison MUNAF, Toyohide TAKEUCHI, Masashi GOTO, Hiroki HARAGUCHI, Daido ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 313-314
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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  • Toshio ISHIZUKA, Yoshinori UWAMINO, Hisashi MORIKAWA, Yasuo IIDA, Akir ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 315-317
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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  • Hiroshi SAKAGUCHI, Shin YOSHII, Kumiko MIYAMOTO, Kimio FURUHATA, Haruo ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 319-320
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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  • Hiroaki TAKAYANAGI, Rie KAWAOKA, Kyoko CHIN, Motoaki GOTO, Shin-ichi Y ...
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 321-322
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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  • Akinori JYO, Takashi KOHNO, Yuichi TERAZONO, Shigeaki KAWANO
    1990 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 323-324
    Published: April 10, 1990
    Released: June 30, 2006
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