Online ISSN : 2185-8519
Print ISSN : 0287-9700
ISSN-L : 0287-9700
  • 五賀 友継, 洪 子甯, 松尾 牧則
    2022 年 54 巻 2 号 p. 87-102
    発行日: 2022/03/31
    公開日: 2022/04/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    The aim of this study was to clarify how kyudo was introduced and disseminated in Taiwan during the period of Japanese rule from 1895 to 1945.

    The first approach in investigating how kyudo began in Taiwan was by analyzing the local newspaper articles published during the period. It was found that the very first “Daikyujo” was established in Taipei in 1896, where kyudo activities first appeared. Some of the “Daikyujo” in this early period were for the purpose of physical exercise and training, while others were similar to “Yabaeigyo”, where the customers were charged to do kyudo as a form of entertainment.

    Next, understanding how the foundation was laid for the spread of kyudo in Taiwan was conducted by researching the role that the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai (DNBK) and the Dai Nippon Kyudo Kai (DNKK) played at the time. In the Taiwan branch of DNBK, the department of kyujutsu was established at the Taipei Chihou Iinbu (Taipei Regional Committee), which was the predecessor of the Taiwan branch of the DNBK, in 1901. This marked the beginning of kyudo practice on the island. However, the kyujutsu department was transferred out of the DNBK to Taiiku Club in 1903 and was temporarily separated from the DNBK. After the dissolution of Taiiku Club in 1916, it returned to the DNBK. Around the same time, the DNKK established its first branch in Takao (Kaohsiung) in 1915, but local promotion activities only began in earnest from 1924, after the visit of Kako NEYA, the founder of the DNKK. Subsequently, Seiko OIZUMI, a master of the DNKK, was stationed in Taiwan and further promoted the spread of kyudo.

    Lastly, the geographical locations and establishment timeline of the Kyudo group, mainly established by the DNBK and DNKK in Taiwan over the period of Japanese rule, were analyzed to identify the extent of the spread of kyudo in the region at the time. It was found that Kyudo group was not only established in urban areas on the west coast of the main island, but also on the less populated east coast, central mountainous areas, and remote islands. In particular, the DNKK accounts for 30% of the kyudo groups in total. On the other hand, it was not clear whether the DNBK had successfully spread to those regions. In addition, it was observed that a high concentration of kyudo organizations established in southern Taiwan were affiliated with the sugar industry. Besides the DNBK and DNKK, the Dai Nippon Shakakuin was another kyudo organization that had its branch in Taipei, but its influence was limited.

  • 三宅 恵介, 竹澤 稔裕, 伊藤 潔, 佐藤 伸一郎, 廣瀬 伸良
    2022 年 54 巻 2 号 p. 103-113
    発行日: 2022/03/31
    公開日: 2022/04/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the tactical actions of nage-waza that are effective in scoring in judo by using a notational match performance analysis, and to provide useful knowledge in the practical field of coaching. For this purpose, we examined the relationship between (1) the type of nage-waza, (2) whether there was a renraku-henka in the nage-waza, and (3) the combination of the tori and the uke’s kumite and whether an athlete scored any points. Data from a total of 441 matches in the −60kg, −81kg, and +100kg weight classes in international competitions held in 2020 were used.

    The tactical actions associated with whether points were scored or not were the type of nage-waza and whether they included a renraku-henka. The combination of tactical actions that influenced the points scored was a combination of henka-waza and te-waza, and in some weight classes, combinations of henka-waza and other techniques were also effective. The combination of henka-waza and sumi-otoshi, which is classified as a te-waza, showed the highest scoring ratio in all weight classes.

    This study suggests for the first time that henka-waza, especially sumi-otoshi, applied during or after the opponent’s attack, is an effective tactical action for scoring regardless of weight class. These new findings indicate that in current judo competitions it is important to not only pursue single techniques but to construct tactical actions relative to the opponent. They are also expected to be useful for specific guidance in coaching.

  • 山本 幸紀, 石井 孝法, 越田 専太郎, 岡田 弘隆, 藤井 範久
    2022 年 54 巻 2 号 p. 115-124
    発行日: 2022/03/31
    公開日: 2022/04/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/18
    ジャーナル フリー

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different collar widths of judogi on the tsurite (right hand in a right-handed judo style) movement of youth judo players in the execution of seoi-nage, in order to clarify the problems of existing judogi from the viewpoint of preventing upper limb injuries in judo.

    The participants in the study were ten elementary school judo athletes. In the experimental trials, the participants executed seoi-nage (yakusoku-renshu) from two different uke postures in a situation where both tori and uke were gripping. Only uke wore four different types of judogi: a judogi for children, an approved judogi in the 2020 International Judo Federation (IJF) regulations, and judogi made of IJF approved material with custom-made collar widths of 2cm and 3cm.

    This study demonstrated that the shoulder’s external rotation angle in seoi-nage was not significantly different between the judogi of different types. However, the shoulder horizontal abduction angle was approximately 20° larger with the approved judogi than that of the other judogi at the transition moment between the turning and throwing phases. Furthermore, the vertical distance between the wrist and the shoulder joint on the tsurite side when performing seoi-nage against uke wearing an approved judogi was significantly larger than against uke wearing a children’s judogi. These results suggest that the tori could not use tsurite effectively to keep the uke off-balance with the approved judogi, leading to a greater imposed stress to the elbow in the seoi-nage throw. This study also demonstrated that the forward tilt angle of the trunk at the moment of maximum external rotation of tori’s shoulder was significantly larger with the approved judogi when compared with the children’s judogi, with a forward tilt angle of more than 50° being shown, which potentially lowers performance and increases the risk of injury. In conclusion, using judogi with the 2020 regulations’ collar widths make it difficult to perform proper seoi-nage, leading to an increased risk of elbow injuries for youth judo athletes.

  • 酒井 利信, 阿部 哲史, 二宮 恭子, 堀川 峻
    2022 年 54 巻 2 号 p. 125-139
    発行日: 2022/03/31
    公開日: 2022/04/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/09
    ジャーナル フリー

    In contemporary budo studies, budo education that aims for personal development presupposes the theory of the mind-body relationship with a holistic view of both dimensions. A characteristic of this method is the emphasis placed on the physical body with a “body → mind” vector in which the body changes the mind. The educational objective of psychological influences is to deepen and enhance the mind. The mind is defined as having two kinds of spirituality: “artistic and seeking of a Way” and “ethical and moral”. It is generally accepted in Japan that the educational power of budo is based on this logic.

    The purpose of this research is to examine whether the logic of budo identified here is applicable outside Japan. In other words, the question “Can the educational power of budo work overseas?” will be examined using specific and extreme international examples.

    Not much time has passed in Eastern Europe since the regime change in 1989 and the outbreak of the Yugoslavia Conflict in 1991. There is a man who has experienced walking the line between life and death, but who is still young and in good health. He has been practising budo for a long time as a means of spiritual nourishment. The subject of this research is Soldier-A, a former combatant in the Yugoslavia Conflict.

    In this research, transcripts of an interview conducted for a Hungarian radio programme, memoirs written voluntarily by the subject, a transcript of a ZOOM interview, and email interviews were analysed.

    A qualitative analysis of the aforementioned text was conducted in the conventional philological method, and the thought process of the subject was clarified.

    Soldier-A, formerly a combatant in the Yugoslavia Conflict, started budo mainly due to his poor family environment. He then served as s a sniper during the conflict. Soldier-A has experienced killing enemy combatants in mortal combat, and this ultimately led to a sense of alienation after the conflict, as well as suffering from sleep disorders and nightmares, mental problems and suicide attempts. It became clear that budo helped Soldier-A overcome these problems.

    This paper confirmed that extreme mental disorders developed through wartime experience that required therapy can be helped through the practice of budo. Soldier-A’s example shows that budo training can lead to the restoration of humanity in a manner similar to which has already been proposed by earlier scholars in Japan.

    Thus, in this case study from Eastern Europe, we could confirm that the logic of budo education, as touted in budo studies, in Japan is applicable outside Japan as well. In other words, “The educational power of budo works overseas.”

    Furthermore, it is possible to develop through budo in Christian cultures. Japanese martial arts philosophy also functions in the Descartesian world of mind-body dualism. As practice progresses, it becomes apparent that “artistic and seeking of a Way” was followed by “ethical and moral,” and likewise that the content of “artistic and seeking spirituality” deepened and evolved as the practice progressed.

  • 江夏 怜
    2022 年 54 巻 2 号 p. 141-148
    発行日: 2022/03/31
    公開日: 2022/04/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/04
    ジャーナル フリー

    Due to the countless variations in standing upper limb joint-locking techniques in Japanese martial arts, they are difficult to master. Nevertheless, several techniques commonly target the same joints and muscles, and may be performed using the same principle. In this study, the standing upper limb joint-locking techniques in several Japanese martial arts were classified by the movement direction of each joint. The primary techniques were classified into 19 patterns based on combinations of wrist, forearm, elbow, and shoulder joint techniques. These classifications not only help practitioners learn techniques of the same group on the same principle, but also they may become a learning aid to clarify the mechanisms underlying each joint technique.

本部企画 特別講演
柔道専門分科会企画 シンポジウム
剣道専門分科会 企画講演
障害者武道専門分科会企画 オンライン討議会