Pasteurella multocida was not able to grow in the presence of inorganic salts, carbohydrate, and amino acid mixture, but could grow in the further addition of lactalbumin hydrolysate (enzymatically). The addition of lactalbumin hydrolysate (enzymatically) to the medium composed of inorganic salts, carbohydrate, amino acid mixture, vitamins and haematin, accelerated the velocity of growth, though final value of growth is promoted only slightly. Most of protein digests examined were effective on the growth of this bacteria.
BCG-injected mice showed an increase (30%) in the weight of the liver and increase (150%) in the weight of the spleen as compared with control mice, at the 11th day after BCG injection. In histological observations, in the liver of the mice were exhibited an infiltration with neutrophils and lymphocytes, multiplication of the Kupffer cells and degeneration of liver cells. In the spleen of the mice were showed a hypertrophy of follicles an proliferation of reticulo-endothelial cells. When the reticuloendothelial system of mice was blocked by Pelikan india ink, the mice showed a decrease (75%) in the LD50 for E. coli endotoxin, however showed no significant alteration of the LD50 for the PR8 strain of influenza A virus. In the peripheral blood picture of BCG-injected mice, an increase (120%) in the number of neutrophils was observed. An increase (20%) in the number of leucocytes was also observed. The results of cellulose acetate electrophoresis indicated a decrease in albumin, increase in α and β plus γ globulins and lowered albumin: globulin ratio (A/G ratio) in response to BCG infection in mice. A little increase in the serum protein concentration of BCG injected mice was observed. The hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titres of the sera of BCG injected and control mice were both lower than 1: 10.There were observed only a little permeability to Trypan blue of control mice's and rabbits' and also BCG-injected animals' skins after the administration with the PR8. This fact suggested that the more sensitive test of the permeability of blood vessel would be required.
The present paper describes the frequency distribution of serological groups of Escherichia coli isolated from specimens of urines from patients (mostly cystitis) in the Shinshu University Hospital (Matsumoto City, Japan) during a period between December 1964 and March 1966. One hundred and twenty three strains of E. coli isolated from 123 patients were identified by the biochemical examinations, then were submitted for serological grouping. The serological typing was carried out with O1 to O146, and H1 to H48 antisera. Eighty-six strains out of 123 (70%) were serologically classified; 26 strains (21%) were smooth but were not agglutinated by any antisera of O groups used, and 10 strains (8%), were rough. Among twenty different serogroups which were identified, serogroups O2, O4, O6, O23 and O75 were encountered more frequently than others. These five common groups accounted for 68% of the typable strains. These results are well agreed with the reports of others in Europe, U.S.A., Canada etc. in which serogroups O1, O2, O4, O6, O23, and O75 are prevalent, usually accounted for about 60 per cent of the typable strains, among E. coli isolated from the urinary tract infections. Approximately 60 per cent of E. coli strains described here were resistant to a number of common antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, streptomycin, and sulfonamides. It was demonstrated that the drug resistance was due maily to the possession of the so called “multiple drug-rsesistant transfer factor” which is known being transmissible from cell to cell by conjugation.
When the susceptibility to cycloserine of various mycobacteria was tested in the Löwenstein-Jensen medium, it was found that Mycobacterium fortuitum was most resistant to this antibiotic and grew at a concentration of cylcoserine as high as 0.5mg/ml. Fifty-two of 66 strains (79%) of the M. fortuitum tested grew at this concentration, but other mycobacteria could not grow at it. Since mycobacteria do not develop any high degree of resistance even after many transfers on the medium containing this antibiotic, the resistance to 0.5mg/ml cycloserine seems to be a good tool for differentiation of M. fortuitum from other mycobacteria.
The toxic effects of snake venom of Tokara Habu (Trimerusurus tokarensis) were tested injecting serially diluted venoms intramuscularly into the legs of mice. The hemorrhagic lesion occurred at the minimum amount of 2γ of the venom and the mld was about 600γ which seemed that the venom was less toxic than that of T. flavoviridis or Agkistrodon halys. As the results of cross test of antivenins of T. tokarensis, T, flavoviridis and A. halys, some instances of cross-protection occurred although heterologous antivenins were less effective than homologous antivenin in protecting mice against effects of venom injection. Thus, the venom of T. tokarensis was neutralized by antivenin of T. flavoviridis, and vice versa. The hemorrhagic activity of the venom of T. tokarensis was also protected though in low degree by the antivenin of Agkistrododn halys, and vice versa. Snake bite cases on Tokara Island were not so serious as that of Trimeresurus flavoviridis found in Amami Islands. There was no severe necrosis or lethal cases. Those facts indicated that the amount of the venom injected in a snake bite case is smaller and low toxic and the snake is not so aggressive as that of Habu snake.
The authors discovered a swelling phenomenon of mouse foot-pad following approximately one week by subcutaneous inoculation of 100616 strain of nonphotochromogen, atypical acid-fast bacilli. The factors concerning the mouse foot-pad swelling reaction by the acid-fast bacillus inoculation were investigated and the following results were obtained: 1. The mouse food-pad swelling reaction appears about one week after subcutaneous inoculation of such acid-fast bacilli as 100616 (nonphotochromogen), 3717 (Myc. tbc avium) and P-6 (scotochromogen). The swelling grades were independent from the multiplication grades of acid-fast bacilli in this site, pathogenesis of the bacilli for mice, and from types of acid-fast bacilli. Therefore, this swelling reaction seems to be not type specific, but strain specific. 2. The reaction factor of the bacilli which are capable of swelling mouse foot-pad is relatively thermostable and exists in the cell wall fraction. 3. It seems that the mechanism of the reaction is not caused by the delayed type tuberclin allergic charactor, because the swelling grade is not parallel with multiplication of the bacilli in susceptible organs of mouse.
After finding a remarkable decrease in the complement in the sera of patients with fulminant form of dysentery in 1952, natural sensitization by E. coli, representative of normal intestinal flora, has been studied by Matsumura, one of the authors, et al. with the following results; bacterial cross allergic reaction between E. coli and Sh. flexneri, having common antigen, natural sensitization by E. coli, and prenatal congenital sensitization by E. coli, etc. Pyrogenic activity of the endotoxin derived from gram-negative bacteria was also assumed to be induced by antigen-antibody reaction on the basis of natural sensitization by normal intestinal flora, from the study of parallelism between the acquisition of febrile tolerance and the increase of the anti-endotoxin titer in sera, in the rabbits. The main project was undertaken to ascertain whether natural sensitization by resident E. coli plays some roles in the mechanism of regression of tumor by the endotoxin extracted from resident E. coli. Rats of the Wistar colony, bred at the Gunma University, harbored GP5 (authors' type) in their intestine as endemic strain. GP5 was identified as E. coli O89::H6. Of 2, 302 cultures of enteric bacteria isolated for about 4 years, 921 were identified as GP5. Of 23 rats which could be studied for 6 months, 9 always yielded GP5 and 8 never did in 26 cultures of feces. A well host-parasite relationship was indicated. Experimental animals were divided into 2 groups. Of 8 cultures for about 2 months, “GP5-positive rats” yielded GP5 in 6 to 8 cultures, while “GP5-negative ones” never did. The endotoxin extracted from GP5 with phenol/water was injected intravenously and Yoshida sarcoma was used, being inoculated subcutaneously. The results were as follows. In the case of 1 to 4 weekly intravenous injections of 0.1 mcg dose, 11 of 13 “GP5-positive rats” and 13 of 14 “GP5-negative ones” showed complete regression. In the case of 2 to 5 intravenous injections of 0.01 mcg dose, 16 of 21 “GP5-positive rats” and 6 of 20 “GP5-negative ones” showed complete regression. In the case of 2 to 4 intravenous injections of 0.001 mcg dose, 3 of 10 “GP5-positive rats” showed complete regression. As to the regression rate in the case of 0.01 mcg injection dose, it was higher in the “GP5-positive rats” than in “GP5-negative ones”, while both groups showed almost the equal rate in the case of 0.1 mcg injection dose. These results suggest that regression of tumor treated with bacterial products would occur on the basis of natural sensitization, derived from not only postnatal sensitization but also prenatal congenital one.