We examined tea extract, (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and theaflavin digallate (TF3) for their antifungal and fungicidal activities against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Candida aibicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Tea extract (2.5%) inhibited completely the growth of both T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. EGCg at 2.5mg/ml failed to inhibit their growth, whereas TF3 at 0.5 mg/ml inhibited the growth. EGCg (1mg/ml) showed no fungicidal activity against Trichophyton. TF3 (1mg/ml) killed Trichophyton by a long time contact (72-96 hrs). Tea extract showed a fungicidal activity against Trichophyton in a dose- and contact time-dependent manner. It did not inhibit the growth of C. albicans, but at a high concentration, inhibited slightly the growth of C. neoformans. It had no fungicidal activity against C. albicans or C. neoformans.
A wild-type strain of Enterococcus feacalis and its mutants resistant to 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) were examined for the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) with 12 carbohydrates, which were utilized by the organism, as the sibstrates. The wild-type strain possessed a constitutive mannose-PTS, which was reactive with glucose, mannose, glucosamine, 2DG and fructose. This activity was absent in the mutants. No independent glucose- or fructose-PTS was found in the mannose-PTS-defective mutants. The mutants, however, showed a low level of a constitutive PTS activity with maltose, suggesting the existence of an independent maltose-PTS in the organism. Both wild-type and mutant strains possessed inducible lactose-, mannitol-, and trehalose-PTSs. Lactose-PTS was induced by either lactose or galactose in the parent, but only by lactose in the mutants. The lactose-PTS was not reactive with galactose, and no separate galactose-PTS was present. These observations suggest that the inducer for lactose-PTS, probably being galactose 6-phosphate, may not be formed from galactose in the organism when the constitutive mannose-PTS is lost by mutation.
In this study, modulation of the surface antigens of Salmonella enteritidis-phagocytized U937 cells and morphology of the bacteria in these cells were analyzed by the indirect immunofluorescence technique. The results are as follows: (1) Morphological studies revealed that the bacteria phagocytized by the U937 cells were transformed to a small coccoid form. (2) The expression of CD14 antigen was observed 24 to 48h after phagocytosis. (3) The levels of CD11b and CD23 antigens were clearly enhanced 48h after phagocytosis. (4) No modulation of HLA-class II (DR, DQ and DP) antigens was observed after phagocytosis.
Soil samples taken monthly in 1990 from five parks outside Tokyo were examined for Enterobacter agglomerans. A total of 348 strains were isolated and 250 of them were tested for the presence of plasmids by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. All the isolates carried at least two kinds of plasmids. Those isolated from July to September showed four or five kinds of plasmids (group I) and those isolated from January to June and from October to December showed two or three kinds of plasmids (group II). A majority of the plasmids detected were of 1, 500 or fewer base pairs. The isolates were tested for the Pb2+ resistance; group I strains were more resistant to lead than group II strains. It is presumed that bacterial plasmids are related with the ecosystem of soil and the resistance to lead in E. agglomerans.
Since the establishment of Gram stain by H.C.Y. Gram in 1884, it has been widely and routinely used as an aid for differentiation of bacteria. The bacteria are divided into three categories by the staining properties; Gram-positive, -negative, and -indefinite. All the text books in the world describe that mycobacteria such as M. tuberculosis are Gram-positive. By the merest chance, however, it was found that M. lepraemurium grown in tissues was not stained by the routinely used Gram staining method. Therefore, we tried to stain some of the mycobacteria by the Gram staining procedure which is widely used at present. The results obtained indicated that the mycobacteria tested were divided into three groups; the unstainable group such as M. leprae and M. lepraemurium, the Gram-positive and difficult-to-stain group which involves such slow growing mycobacteria as M. tuberculosis, M. avium, and M. intracellulare, and the Gram-indefinite group which contains such rapid growing mycobacteria as M. phlei, M. smegmatis, and M. chelonae. However, if Gram stain is carried out by the heating procedure at the first staining step, all the mycobacteria would become Gram-positive. Therefore, we emphasize that Gram staining of mycobacteria should be performed by the heating procedure.