The effects of pertussis vaccine on the host factor of the immunized mice were examined in respect to the route and period of immunization. The mice immunized intraperitoneally with the doses of the protection test showed an increased sensi-tivity to histamine, intracerebral inoculation of sonic extract of Bordetella pertussis, and the intracerebral inoculation of living typhoid bacilli. And these effects were more remarkable at the 10th day after the im-munization than the later. However, the mice immunized subcutaneously did not show any increase of these sensitivity and protection. On the other hand, the mice immunized intraperitoneally and boostered with 17 days interval showed better protection than 10 days interval, meaning the better establishment of the protection at the time of 17 days after the immunization. From these results, including the reactivity to heterologous stresses and better response to the booster, . immunization period of 17 day is preferable to 10 day.
Dihydrothioctic acid inactivated Habu snake venom toxoids were injected subcutaneously into people of Amami Islands. 2771 persons of Amami Islands received shots of 0.5ml. of dihydrothioctic acid inactivated Habu venom toxoids at the interval of two weeks which contained 2.5mg. of snake venom and dihydrothioctic acids. Main local reactions were slight swelling and pains by pressure of the locus of injection continued several days. Most people who had received shots were able to work without fever or other general symptoms. Although a rise in the antivenine titer occurred, the level of circulating antibody which were produced as a results of active immunizations was lower than that of animals.
On the dd strain mice thymectomized within 24 hours after birth, were examined immune response to various antigenic stimulations and acquisition of non-specific resistance following the administration of zymosan, and the following results were obtained. 1. Impairment of the primary as well as the secondary antibody responses to sheep erythrocyte, heatkilled salmonella and T2-phage antigens was noticed in the neonatally operated mice. 2. When ascites hepatoma cells of AH39 strain indigenous to rat were inoculated intraperitoneally into the thymectomized mice, the xenogeneic grafts multiplied flourishly in the peritoneal cavity leading to the death of the host. On the contrary, in the non-thymectomized control animals, the inoculated tumor cells were rejected entirely within 7 to 12 days after the transplantation. 3. The presence of the thymus seemed to be essential for the normal development of the acquired resistance to experimental typhoid and toxoplasmosis after immunization with attenuated live vaccines. 4. Even on the neonatally thymectomized mice, non-specific resistance was conferred after the admi-nistration with zymosan. Thus, the thymectomized mice, which had been administered with zymosan 1 to 14 days prior to the infection, resisted to an intraperitoneal pneumococcal infection. As a concomitant of this non-specific resistance, increase of acid phosphatase activities was obtained in the peritoneal exudate cells of these animals.
Sixteen isolates from soil sources and three isolates from human sources of Mycobacterium fortuitum in stock cultures were tested for their virulence to mice taking the viable numbers in the lungs and in the spleen as a measure. Among the strains tested, six strains of M. fortuitum isolated from soil sources were shown to be virulent to mice. It was suggested that M. fortuitum occurring in soil may have a chance to infect man and animals.
6-mercaptopurine in amount of 50mg per kilogram of body weight was administered daily in the dd strain mice, starting on the same day when the various antigenic stimulations were given. Modified immunological responses of the mice were examined and the following results were obtained. 1. Impairment of the primary as well as the secondary antibody responses to heat-killed salmonella and sheed erythrocyte antigens was recognized in the drug-treated mice. 2. When ascites hepatoma cells of AH39 strain indigenous to rat were inoculated intraperitoneally into the drug-treated mice, the xenogeneic grafts showed an extended survival time of 10 to 13 days. On the contrary, in the neutral mice, the inoculated tumor cells were entirely rejected within 9 days after the transplantation. 3. The administration of the antimetabolite seemed to delay the rejection time of allogeneic grafts: mice of DK1 strain maintained on 6-mercaptopurine rejected the full-thickness skin grafts taken from C3H/HeN strain mice 15 to 21 days after the transplantation, in a remarkable contrast to the complete rejection of the grafts observed within 14 days in controls. 4. No acquired resistance to experimental typhoid was conferred to the drug-treated mice which had been immunized with attenuated live vaccines. 5. Electrophoretic analysis were attempted on sera taken from the mice which had been injected with standard antigens in addition to 6-mercaptopurine: a decrease in albumin contents with relative increase of β-and γ-globulin levels was confirmed. Total protein concentration of the serum, however, remained at the same level as the controls. 6. In the spleen and the lymph nodes of the mice inoculated with the antigens in addition to the immunosuppressive drug, only a few plasma cells were observed scattered around the atrophied germinal centers. Premature lymphoid cells named “lymphogonia”, which had been considered by some hematologists to be able to synthesize 19 S macroglobulin antibodies, were however noticed in number larger than normal.
This report described the several extraction methods (Saline, 90% phenol and hot water) and purification of mycelial antigenic substances of Aspergillus fumigatus. The extraction methods are as follows: In the first, myceliun of A. fumigatus homoginized with saline solution at 0°C, for 3hrs, and centrifuged with 3000r.p.m., and the residue extracted with 90% phenol, at 80°C, for 30 minutes, and then the phenol treated residue was extracted further with hot water at 100°C. for 30 minutes. The composition of those fractions are as follows: 1) The carbohydrate contents are about 50% in those extraction methods. Sugar components are mannose and galactose from fractions by saline and 90% phenol extractions, but that of hot water extraction contain mannose, galactose and glucose. 2) Major components of fatty acid in those fractions are palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. 3) Those fractions showes almost similarity of antigenic titre.
The cross resistance of one-step highly streptomycin (SM) resistant mutants and SM dependent mutants against kanamycin (KM), and the genetics of the cross resistance were reported previously in Escherichia coil strain B/r. The present author attempted to analyse the genetics of the cross resistance using SM dependent mutants of Staphylococcus aureus. Analytical experiment using transduction technique did not show any positive result. However, the results of exact observation in Staphylococcus aureus strain 209P suggested that the same genetic mechanism concerned as in the case of Esherichia coil with regard to SM resistant mutants and SM dependent mutants, and that non-dependent mutants derived from SM dependent mutants were also suppressor mutants.