A modulator of neurite outgrowth, designated S19159, was isolated from the fermentation broth of fungal strain 19159. This fungus was identified as the loculoascomycete, Preussia aemulans (Rehm) von Arx. In the presence of S19159, the number of neurites extending from the cell bodies of cerebral cortical neurons was markedly reduced. The effect of S19159 was observed specifically in neurons from the central nervous system. The compound exhibited similar activities on cultured cortical, hippocampal and cerebeller neurons but was without detectable effect on dorsal root ganglion neurons and PC12 cells.
YUA001 is a novel aldose reductase inhibitor produced from alkalophilic Corynebacterium sp. YUA25 isolated from soil. YUA001 was purified from the supernatant of culture broth by successive silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH20-100 gel column chromatography, and HPLC. From instrumental analysis, molecular formula of YUA001 is C13H19NO2 and its molecular weight is 221. It exhibits potent aldose reductase inhibition activity and has no antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and yeast.
A new antitumor substance, designated BE-19412A, was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. A19412. The active principle was extracted from the mycelium by methanol and purified by Silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. BE-19412B was prepared by methylation of BE-19412A. BE-19412A and B exhibited cytotoxic activity against murine and human tumor cell lines. BE-19412A prolonged the survival of CDF1 mice bearing i.p. implanted Ehrlich carcinoma cells.
Glucosylquestiomycin, a novel N-glucopyranoside of questiomycin A, was isolated from the culture broth of Microbispora sp. TP-A0184. The absolute configuration of the sugar was determined as D-configuration by chemical synthesis. The new antibiotic showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and yeasts and cytotoxic activity against U937 cells.
New antifungal antibiotics, designated as 3874 H1 and H3, were discovered in the fermentation broth of the strain Streptomyces sp. HAG 003874. The compounds were obtained as yellow powders after sequential purification by chromatography on MCI Gel CHP20P, Fractogel HW-40 and ODS reversed phase chromatography. On the basis of the results of spectroscopic analysis, it was found that 3874 H1, C58H86N2O18, MW 1098, belongs to the p-aminoacetophenone containing family of heptaene antibiotics, while 3874 H3, C57H87NO18, MW 1073, is a non-aromatic heptaene. In addition to these, a minor component, 3874 H2, C59H88N2O18, MW 1112, a N-methyl derivative of 3874 H1 has been detected. The structures were elucidated through mass spectral analyses and 1-D and 2-D homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR data. The outstanding physico-chemical feature of 3874 H3 is its improved solubility. The new heptaenes are potent antifungal compounds with broad activity spectra, encompassing dermatophytes, yeasts and filamentous fungi.
WAP-8294A, produced by Lysobacter sp., is a complex consisting of water soluble depsipeptide antibiotics. It was further purified by column chromatographies and HPLC, and 19 components were obtained. WAP-8294A2, a major component, and minor components A1, A4, Ax8, Ax9 and Ax13 were active against Gram-positive bacteria, in particular, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro. WAP-8294A2 was highly active in vivo in mice against the systemic infection of MRSA.
Activation of cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase Raf-1, an important effector of Ras, requires direct binding to Ras. The yeast two-hybrid screening system used for identification of inhibitors of Ras/Raf-1 interaction showed radicicol to be an inhibitor. Radicicol has been shown to induce morphological reversion of transformed cells. Immunoprecipitation with an anti-Ras antibody revealed that the in vivo Ras/Raf-1 binding in v-Ha-ras-transformed cells was also blocked by low concentrations of radicicol (0.1∼1 μg/ml), while degradation of Raf-1 was induced at concentrations higher than 2 μg/ml. However, in vitro binding of glutathion S-transferase-fused Ras to a maltose binding protein-fused RIP3 containing the Ras-binding domain (RBD) of Raf-1 was not inhibited by radicicol. Similar two-hybrid assays with several truncated forms of Raf-1 showed that both the conserved serine/threonine-rich domain (CR2) and the C-terminal protein kinase domain (CR3) were required for the full inhibition by radicicol. These results suggest that radicicol interacts directly or indirectly with the region except with RBD of Raf-1, thereby inhibiting a conformational change of Raf-1 prerequisite for binding to Ras.
Novel glycopeptides derived from teicoplanin were prepared and evaluated for activity against antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Removal of the fatty acid sidechains of teicoplanin was accomplished by enzymatic deacylation. The resulting deacylated teicoplanin was subjected to reductive alkylation resulting in mono- and di-alkylated compounds at the 2 possible primary amines. Deacylated teicoplanin was less active than teicoplanin against enterococci and staphylococci (MIC ≥32 μg/ml). All mono- and di-alkylated products regained some activity, and some had potent activity against both staphylococci and glycopeptide-resistant enterococci. MICs of the most potent di-alkylated compounds ranged from 0.25∼2 μg/ml against glycopeptide-resistant enterococci.