The Journal of Antibiotics
Online ISSN : 1881-1469
Print ISSN : 0021-8820
ISSN-L : 0021-8820
Volume 32 , Issue 9
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • YO TAKIGUCHI, HIROJI YOSHIKAWA, AKIRA TERAHARA, AKIO TORIKATA, MICHIYA ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 857-861
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Streptomyces saganonensis No. 4075 used for production of herbicidins A and B has also produced other two antibiotics, herbicidins C and E in submerged culture. Isolation of the antibiotics was performed by adsorption on resinous adsorbent followed by elution with aqueous MeOH and completed by silica-gel chromatography. Physico-chemical characterization revealed that herbicidins C and E are new nucleoside antibiotics having an adenine moiety
    in their structures. Herbicidins C and E indicated inhibitory activity against germination of chinese cabbage at 12.5 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml, respectively, and Anacystis nidulans, a blue green algae, at 100-200 μg/ml.
    Download PDF (2126K)
  • YO TAKIGUCHI, HIROJI YOSHIKAWA, AKIRA TERAHARA, AKIO TORIKATA, MICHIYA ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 862-867
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Streptomyces saganonensis No. 4075 used for production of herbicidins A and B has also produced other two antibiotics, herbicidins C and E in submerged culture. Isolation of the antibiotics was performed by adsorption on resinous adsorbent followed by elution with aqueous MeOH and completed by silica-gel chromatography. Physico-chemical characterization revealed that herbicidins C and E are new nucleoside antibiotics having an adenine moiety in their structures. Herbicidins C and E indicated inhibitory activity against germination of chinese cabbage at 12.5 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml, respectively, and Anacystis nidulans, a blue green algae, at 100-200 μg/ml.
    Download PDF (2236K)
  • MASAHIRO SUGIMOTO, SHINZO ISHII, RYO OKACHI, TAKASHI NARA
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 868-873
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    From the fermentation broth of Micromonospora olivoasterospora CS-26 that produced fortimicins A and B three new aminoglycoside antibiotics, fortimicins C, D and KE, were isolated. Fortimicins C and D exhibited potent, broad spectrum antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and negative bacteria, while fortimicin KE was only weakly active.
    Download PDF (2518K)
  • JOHN W. WESTLEY, CHAO-MIN LIU, RALPH H. EVANS, JOHN F. BLOUNT
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 874-877
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fermentation of deposited cultures ofStreptomyces conglobatus, known to produce the polyether antibiotic, ionomycin has resulted in the isolation and characterization of a second metabolite, conglobatin (C28H38N2O6). X-Ray analysis revealed a dimeric macrolide dilactone structure for conglobatin, similar to the structures of the mold metabolites vermiculin and pyrenophorin, from which the absolute configuration of conglobatin has been inferred. The dimer consists of two molecules of 7-hydroxy-8-oxazoyl-2, 4, 6-trimethyl-2-octenoic acid joined by two ester linkages.
    Download PDF (1501K)
  • CHEMICAL STRUCTURES
    YASUTAKA SHIMAUCHI, KATSURO KUBO, KAZUKO OSUMI, KAZUHIKO OKAMURA, YASU ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 878-883
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The structures of deltamycins A1, A2, A3 and A4 belonging to the basic macrolide family of antibiotics were determined mainly from their spectral properties. Deltamycin A4 was identified as carbomycin A having an isovaleryl group on the mycarose moiety of the molecule. Deltamycin A1, A2 and A3 possess similarities to the structure of deltamycin A4, but they have acetyl, propionyl and n-butyryl group, respectively, in the place of isovaleryl group of deltamycin A4. These structures were confirmed by chemical synthesis from deltamycin X (4''-O-deacyldeltamycin) and the corresponding acyl chlorides.
    Download PDF (2370K)
  • PAUL KURATH, DAVE GRAMPOVNIK, JACK TADANIER, JERRY R. MARTIN, RICHARD ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 884-890
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The conversion of fortimicin E, a minor metabolite from the Micromonospora olivoasterospora fermentation which also produces fortimicin A and fortimicin B, to four 4-N-aminoacylfortimicins E was accomplished. The new 4-N-aminoacylfortimicins E showed only weak antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms.
    Download PDF (3509K)
  • BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY OF BUTIROSINS ELUCIDATED FROM COSYNTHESIS AND FEEDING EXPERIMENTS
    TAMOTSU FURUMAI, KATSUO TAKEDA, AKIO KINUMAKI, YUKIO ITO, TOMOHARU OKU ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 891-899
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    By cosynthetic studies, nine butirosin-non-producing blocked mutants of Bacillus circulans were classified into 7 groups (A to F and exceptional groups), based on their complementation patterns. Except for two strains of group A, mutant strains were all neamine-requiring idiotrophs. Mutants of group A produced xylostasin and ribostamycin and a mutant of group B accumulated 2-deoxystreptamine (DOS) in the culture broth. By feeding tests with a compound assumed to be an intermediate in butirosin biosynthesis, the following information was obtained: myo-inositol, conduritol B, 1-deoxy-scyllo-inositol and its per-acetate were not incorporated into the antibiotic by any mutants. 2-Deoxy-scyllo-inosose was converted to butirosins only by mutants of groups E and F. These mutants converted scyllo-inosose to 2-hydroxybutirosins, as well. 2-Deoxy-scyllo-inosamine and DOS, but not N-acetyl-DOS, were converted to butirosins by mutants of groups C to F. These mutants also converted
    scyllo-inosamine-2 and streptamine to 2-hydroxybutirosins. Paromamine, neamine, ribostamycin and xylostasin were readily converted to butirosins by all mutants except those of group A. Mutants of group A could not convert any substances tested. By the above information, the biosynthetic pathway previous proposed for butirosins was extended as shown in Fig. 4, which indicated the blocked sites in the respective mutants.
    Download PDF (4667K)
  • GUGLIELMO ELITROPI, EZIO PANTÒ, SILVIA TRICERRI, LINO CHIARANI, ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 900-908
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The synthesis and the in vitro activity of a number of cephalosporins and 7α-methoxy cephalosporins having 7-acyl substituents derived from 1-methyl-4 (or 5)-nitro-1H-imidazolyl-thioacetic acids are described. The microbiological profile is influenced by the position of both the nitro group and the side-chain sulfur atom on the 1-methyl imidazole, and by the nature of the 3-substituent.
    Download PDF (3967K)
  • KWUNG P. FU, HAROLD C. NEU
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 909-914
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The β-lactamase stability and inhibitory activity of 1-oxa cephalosporin, (6R, 7R)-7-[[carboxy(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino]-7-methoxy-3-[[(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)thio]methyl]-8-oxo-5-oxa-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, was investigated and compared to that of cefoxitin and cefotaxime. There was no detectable β-lactamase hydrolysis of 1-oxa cephalosporin, cefotaxime and cefoxitin when incubated with β-lactamases of plasmid or chromosomal origin which were primarily cephalosporinases or enzymes which hydrolyzed both penicillins and cephalosporins. The β-lactamase inhibitory activity of 1-oxa cephalosporin
    was comparable to that of cefoxitin and cefotaxime. At equal molar concentration of substrate and inhibitor, cefoxitin, cefotaxime and 1-oxa cephalosporin effectively inhibited cephalosporinase hydrolysis of cephaloridine. Cefoxitin and cefotaxime were more effective inhibitors than the 1-oxa cephalosporin against a Providencia enzyme, whereas cefotaxime and 1-oxa cephalosporin were more effective inhibitors of a Citrobactercephalosporinase.
    Download PDF (2636K)
  • AURIOL C. HILL, GRAHAME SUTTON
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 915-919
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new macrolide antibiotic, rosamicin, was shown to have much greater activity in vitro against ureaplasmas isolated from humans than erythromycin or the tetracyclines tested. A marked ureaplasmacidal effect was also shown.
    Download PDF (2465K)
  • P. C. FUCHS, C. THORNSBERRY, A. L. BARRY, R. N. JONES, T. L. GAVAN, E. ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 920-927
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rosamicin in vitro activity was compared with that of erythromycin and other antimicrobics against clinical urinary tract isolates, genital pathogens and Neisseria meningitidis. Although the susceptibility or resistance to the two macrolides almost perfectly paralleled each other, the activity of rosamicin was greater than that of erythromycin against most species tested, including the Enterobacteriaceae, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli, N. gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis and Haemophilus vaginalis. No differences were seen between the two against Staphylococcus aureus, and erythromycin was superior against Streptococcus pyogenes. Significant increased activity of both drugs was observed against Gram-negative bacilli upon alkalinization of the media. The differences between bacteriostatic and bactericidal levels of rosamicin were greater against Gram-negative bacilli than Gram-positive cocci. The effect of inoculum size on increasing the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of rosamicin was significant above inocula of 105 bacteria/ml, but not below this level. Dilution-zone size regression analyses showed good correlation with rosamicin, yielding suggested susceptibility breakpoints of 1μg/ml and 24mm zone of inhibition with 15-μg discs. The erythromycin regression analysis data in this study suggest that the NCCLS zone size criteria may be too low. The exquisite susceptibility of genital pathogens to rosamicin plus the pharmacologic concentration of rosamicin in prostate, urethra and vaginal secretions renders this drug worthy of further investigation for possible use in genital tract infections.
    Download PDF (3878K)
  • II. INTERACTION WITH DNA
    ICHIRO N. MARUYAMA, NOBUO TANAKA, SHINICHI KONDO, HAMAO UMEZAWA
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 928-934
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The previous biochemical investigations (MARUYAMA, I. N. et al. J. Antibiotics, 31: 761-768, 1978) suggested that DNA is the chemoreceptor of neothramycin, a new antitumor antibiotic. Therefore, the interaction of the drug with DNA was studied in the current experiments, using UV, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopies, and a [14C]neothramycin binding method. The UV absorption spectrum of neothramycin exhibited bathochromic shift and hypochromic change upon reaction with native calf thymus DNA, indicating a reaction of the antibiotic with DNA. The binding of the drug with native DNA was also demonstrated by circular dichroism. It was further observed that [14C]neothramycin interacted with native DNA. The antibiotic bound to native DNA and poly[dG•dC] more markedly than heat-denatured DNA, poly[dA•dT] and poly[dG] •poly[dC]. Fluorescence of neothramycins A and B was enhanced by native DNA, but not significantly by RNA and heat-denatured DNA. The emission maximum (420 nm) was the same in the presence and absence of DNA. Fluorospectrometric studies revealed that 10, 11-dihydroneothramycins A and B, and their 3-O-butyl derivatives did not bind to DNA; and DNA reacted with 3-O-alkylneothramycin B, but not with 3-O-alkylneothramycin A. The current experiments showed that the reaction rate of neothramycin with native DNA was slower than those of other DNA-binding antibiotics, including anthramycin, tomaymycin, sibiromycin, adriamycin, and actinomycin. The timerequired for neothramycin to saturate DNA was several hours. The results suggested that neothramycin may recognize or interact with a highly specific portion of double helical structure of DNA, and then a covalent bond may be formed between C-11 of the antibiotic and guanine or cytosine base of DNA.
    Download PDF (3791K)
  • I. EFFECTS ON BACTERIAL GROWTH AND RIBOSOMAL PEPTIDYL TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY
    GAMAL M. IMAM, HANS KÜNTZEL
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 935-942
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The response of 15 bacterial cultures to the inhibitory effects of the above mentioned compounds was investigated. These varied considerably. Escherichia coli cultures resistant to the compounds tested showed that monoketo-organomycin and cystaurimycin inhibit bacterial growth by what appears to be the one and same mechanism which is not the same as that exhibited by their performic acid-oxidized modifications. This was confirmed by using cell free extracts of E. coli. In light of the puromycin reaction, using chloramphenicol and chlorotetracycline as control inhibitors, monoketo-organomycin and cystaurimycin were found to inhibit protein synthesis in vitro by inhibiting peptidyl transferase of ribosomes. In marked contrast, this enzyme was activated, as also was protein synthesis, by their performic acid-oxidized modifications. It was thus suggested that the growth inhibitory effects of the latter compounds might be due to their interference in other metabolic activities of the above test
    organism. The results obtained are discussed in light of the chemical similarities or differences existing between the compounds investigated.
    Download PDF (3928K)
  • II. INHIBITION OF MITOCHONDRIAL ATPASE ACTIVITY IN ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE PERFORMIC ACID-OXIDIZED MODIFICATIONS-BINDING PROTEIN
    GAMAL M. IMAM
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 943-951
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Performic acid-oxidized modifications of monoketo-organomycin and cystaurimycin1) were found to possess identical mechanisms of action. Both inhibit mitochondrial ATPase activity in Aspergillus nidulans. The corresponding binding-protein was isolated from whole mitochondria and purified ATPase complex using neutral chloroform-methanol mixture. Gel filtration and amino acid analyses gave an estimated molecular weight of 8, 000-8, 500 dalton and was identified as the smallest subunit of the ATPase complex. This protein is highly hydrophobic (30% polarity) and highly rich in alanine, leucine and glycine. Tyrosine and alanine represent the N- and C-terminal amino acids respectively. Binding studies revealed that neither the N- nor the C- terminal residues of the above two enzyme inhibitors was involved in the binding or inhibition processes. Nonspecific binding to other mitochondrial component(s) was, however, observed with oxidized monoketo-organomycin. This nonspecific binding could be abolished by using the dansylated derivative of the latter compound. The dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD)-binding protein showed characteristics very similar to what appeared to be the same and one protein capable of binding the performic acid-oxidized compounds. Oligomycin and DCCD had no significant inhibitory effect on binding of the ATPase inhibitors investigated. This mechanism of action differs from that exhibited by the parent nonoxidized compounds, monoketo-organomycin and cystaurimycin. The latter pair were found to inhibit in vitro protein synthesis2) but not ATPase activity.
    Download PDF (4373K)
  • ON THE MODE OF ACTION OF CLADOSPORIN
    HEIDRUN ANKE
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 952-958
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cladosporin, a fungal isocoumarin derivative, strongly inhibits the uptake and thereby the incorporation of uracil and leucine into cells of Bacillus brevis and the incorporation of uridine but not leucine into cells of the ascitic form of EHRLICH carcinoma (ECA) of mice. Normal uptake was not restored by removal of the antibiotic. In cells of Escherichia coli A 19-15 (met-) the inhibition of methionine uptake is associated with the cessation of growth. In a methionine-prototrophic revertant from this organism, the uptake of methionine is still inhibited; growth, however, is hardly affected by cladosporin. In vitro no effect on the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from E. coli and on the RNA polymerase II from wheat germ could be detected. The poly(U)-directed poly(Phe) synthesis was also not inhibited by cladosporin. It is concluded that cladosporin inhibits uptake processes which, for the case of essential nutrients, leads to loss of viability.
    Download PDF (3620K)
  • JOHN W. WESTLEY, HARUO SETO, NOBORU OTAKE
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 959-960
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1013K)
  • A. G. BROWN, D. F. CORBETT, A. J. EGLINGTON, T. T. HOWARTH
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 961-963
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1323K)
  • YOSHIRO OKAMI, KUNIMOTO HOTTA, MAKOTO YOSHIDA, DAISHIRO IKEDA, SHINICH ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 964-966
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1620K)
  • SATOSHI YAGINUMA, NAOKI MUTO, MASARU OTANI
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 967-969
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1410K)
  • HARUO SETO, KAZUTOSHI MIZOUE, NOBORU OTAKE, PIERRE GACHON, ALAIN KERGO ...
    1979 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 970-971
    Published: 1979
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (644K)
feedback
Top