The Journal of Antibiotics
Online ISSN : 1881-1469
Print ISSN : 0021-8820
ISSN-L : 0021-8820
Volume 27 , Issue 6
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • KAZUHIKO WAKABAYASHI
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 373-378
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Mutants of yeast with mitochondrial chloralnphenicol-resistance, erythromycin-resistanceand oligomycin-resistance were crossed and the recombination values werestudied. Crosses were compared, which were performed between the cells of the same type and of different types (type I and type II). The recombination values between erythromycin-resistance and oligomycin-resistance did not show any significant change in both crosses, but increased rates of recombination between chloramphenicol-resistance and other two resistance markers were found in the latter crosses. It was also observed in these crosses that the recombination values for [cap]-[oli] was close to the addition of the values for [cap]-[ery] and for [ery]-[oli].
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  • JEFFREY L. SCHWARTZ, MICHIKO KATAGIRI, SATOSHI OMURA, MAX TISHLER
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 379-385
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Examination of the effects of prumycin on sensitive Botrytis cinerea and Sarcinalutea showed that inhibition of protein synthesis in both organisms and reduction in ribonucleic acid synthesis in Botrytis cinerea are among the mechanisms of action. The inhibition of RNA biosynthesis in Botrytis cinerea is probably a secondary effect Resulting from the termination of protein synthesis rather than a direct inhibition. In a cell-free protein-synthesizing system obtained from crushed Botrytis cinerea cells, incorporation of L-phenylalanine-14C into polyphenylalanine (with polyuridylic acid as synthetic messenger) was inhibited by prumycin. Ribosome binding studies indicated that prumycin did not effect its inhibition at the ribosomal stage of protein synthesis.
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  • TATSUO HANEISHI, NOBUAKI KITAHARA, YOO TAKIGUCHI, MAMORU ARAI, SHINICH ...
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 386-392
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Methylenomycins A and B, two new antibiotics were found in the culture filtrate of a streptomycete strain No.2416, which was identified as a strain of Streptomyces violaceoruber. Their elementary analyses and mass spectroscopic measurements suggested that the molecular formula of methylenomycin A was C9H10O4 and that of methylenomycin B was C8H10O2. Methylenomycins A and B exhibited activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and especially against Proteus.
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  • TATSUO HANEISHI, AKIRA TERAHARA, MAMORU ARAI, TADASHI HATA, CHIHIRO TA ...
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 393-399
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The structure of methylenomycin A was studied physico-chemically and finally established by X-ray crystallographic analysis as 2-methylene-cyclopentane-3-one-4, 5-epoxy4, 5-dimethyl-1-carboxylic acid. The structure of methylenomycin B was also determined by a comparative study of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of methylenomycins A and B to be 4, 5-epoxy4, 5-dimethyl-2-methylene-cyclopentane-3-one, which makes it a decarboxylated derivative of methylenomycin A.
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  • TATSUO HANEISHI, AKIRA TERAHARA, KIYOSHI HAMANO, MAMORU ARAI
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 400-407
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Chemical modification of methylenomycin A afforded broadened spectrum as well as stronger antibiotic activity. In addition to the original antibacterial activity of methylenomycin A, the alkyl ester derivatives of the antibiotic possessed antifungal activity. With regard to structure-activity relationship, the existence of theα, β-unsaturated carbonyl function, epoxide and cyclopentane ring was found to be essential for antibacterial activity, and the alkyl ester, C3-carbonyl group, epoxide and cyclopentane ring for the antifungal activity.
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  • K. HORÀKOVÀ, J. NAVAROVÀ, P. NEMEC, M. KETTNER
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 408-412
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Dactylarin is a new antiprotozoal antibiotic which also exhibits cytotoxic activity. The decrease of mitotic index in treated HeLa cells indicates that the antibiotic inhibition is expressed prior to mitosis. Dactyiarin inhibited the progression or G2 cells into mitosis. One of the earliest changes of dactylarin-treated cells was an increase in the cell size. Dactylarin induced unbalanced growth of HeLa cells in which DNA and RNA content per unit of cell volume decreased. while protein content remained directly proportional to the increased cell volume, Under the same experimental conditions only a slight effect on glucose utilization was observed. In the light of these findings, the possible lethal action of dactylarin was discussed.
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  • SETSUKO KUNIMOTO, TAKAAKI AOYAGI, RINZO NISHIZAWA, TOMOYOSHI KOMAI, TO ...
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 413-418
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Pepstatin, a strongly bound inhibitor of acid proteases, does not instantaneously bind to pepsin. The dissociation constant of pepsin-pepstatin complex is 9.7 × 10-11 M using Phe•Gly•His•Phe(NO2)•Phe•Ala•PheOMe as substrate. Difference ultraviolet absorption spectra show conformational change of pepsin in interaction with pepstatin. The bindillg of pepsin with pepstatin is stoicheometric and the normality of pepsin can be easily titrated by pepstain. Pepsin modified by 1, 2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy) propane, 2, 3-butanedione, α-diazo-p-bromoacetophenone or p-bromophenacyl bromide shows reduced pepstatin-binding activity.
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  • HAMAO UMEZAWA, SENJI HORI, TSUTOMU SAWA, TAKEO YOSHIOKA, TOMIO TAKEUCH ...
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 419-424
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Affinity chromatography of a bleomycin-inactivating enzyme was studied on Sepharose 4 B-bleomycin A5 and Sepharose 4 B-lysinamide. Mouse liver was homogenized, and the enzyme extracted by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Affinity chromatography of the extract on Sepharose 4 B-lysinamide gave 25-fold purified enzyme, Further purification vas not successful because of instability of the enzyme. It hydrolyzed L-lysinamide, L-lysyl-β-naphthyl-amide, L-arginy1-β-naphthylamide, L-lysyl-L-lysine and Iysyl-bradykinin, but not leucinamide or L-leucyl-β-naphthylamide. Hydrolysis of L-lysyl-β-naphthylamide and L-arginyl-β-naphthylamide by the enzyme was competitively inhibited by bleomycin B2. The bleomycin-inactivating enzyme of rat liver was separated from a known aminopeptidase B.
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  • KAZUO NAKAHAMA, MOTOWO IZAWA, MASAYUKI MUROI, TOYOKAZU KISHI, MINORU U ...
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 425-432
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Maridomycin, a macrolide antibiotic, was hydrolyzed to 4"-deacylmaridomycin byesterases obtained from many bacteria. Among these bacteria, Bacillus megaterium91277 showed the highest activity. The properties of the esterase were investigated by using cell-free extract obtained from B. megaterium 91277. Optimum pH was 8.5.9-Propionylmaridomycin was also hydrolyzed to 4"-deacyl-9-propionylmaridomycin by the esterase. The hydrolytic rate of 9-propionylmaridomycin was more rapid than that of maridomycin. Substrates bearing 4"-acyl group of C3 or C4 were most rapidly hydrolyzed. 4"-Depropionylmaridomycln III and 4"-depropionyl-9-propionylmaridomycin III were prepared from maridomycin III and 9-propionylmaridomycin III, respectively, in large scale by using culture broth of B. megaterium 91277. 4"-DeisovaIeryljosamycin
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  • KAZUO NAKAHAMA, TOYOKAZU KISHI, SEIZI IGARASI
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 433-441
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Maridomycin I (MDM I), a macrolide antibiotic, was hydroxylated at β-position of 4"-isovaleryl group to 3'''-hydroxymaridomycin I (HMDM I) by culture broth of Streptomyces olivaceus 219. The structure of HMDM I was elucidated from the results of its NMR and mass spectra, methanolysis and alkaline hydrolysis. Josamycin (JM) was also hydroxylated to 3'''-hydroxyjosamycin (HJM) by the same strain. Antimicrobial activities of these hydroxylated products (HMDM I and HJM) were 1/2-1/5 of their substrates(MDM I and JM), Protective effect of HJM against Staphylococcus aureus by oral administration, however, was similar to that of JM. HJM and HMDM I were resistant to rat liver homogenate and bacterial esterase, which hydrolyzed JM and MDM I to 4"-deisovaleryljosamycin and 4"-deisovalerylmaridomycin I, respectively.
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  • HIDEO ONO, SETSUO HARADA, TOYOKAZU KISHI
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 442-448
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    investigated by using Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Of some compounds, L-methionine-methyl- 14C was well incorporated into maridomycin molecule with 27% of the added radioactivity. Degradation studies of the labeled maridomycin revealed that one methyl group in aglycone, two methyl groups in mycaminose and one methyl group in mycarose were derived from the methyl group of L-methionine.
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  • MASAYUKI MUROI, MOTOWO IZAWA, TOYOKAZU KISHI
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 449-459
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    9-Propionylmaridomycin (PMDM) and maridomycin (MDM) were transformed into 4"-deacyl-9-propionylmaridomycin (PMDM-M) and 4"-deacylmaridomycin (MDM-M), respectively, by incubation with rat liver homogenates in pH 7.2 buffer solution. The structures of these products were elucidated from their physicochemical properties and the result of chemical conversions into the known derivatives of MDM. Furthermore, PMDM-M was isolated as a main metabolite from the urine of rats treated with PMDM by oral route. On the other hand, from human urine after oral administration of PMDM, three metabolites were recovered and identified as PMDM-M, MDM and MDM-M by direct comparison.
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  • HIROSHI KAWAGUCHI, KOJI TOMITA, TOSHIO HOSHIYA, TAKEO MIYAKI, KEI-ICHI ...
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 460-470
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Strains of Bacillus circulans produced the new aminoglycoside antibiotics, 4'-Deoxybutirosins A and B (Bu-1975C1 and C2). The new antibiotics C21H41N5O11, have physicochemical properties similar to butirosins A and B (C21H41N5O12) with specific differences in TLC and NMR. The antibacterial activity and spectra of 4'-deoxybutirosins are similar to but broader than that of butirosins, inhibiting some butirosin-resistant organisms and showing increased anti-pseudomonal activity. The acute intraveous toxicity of Bu-1975C1 is lower than that of kanamycin and similar to butirosin A.
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  • MASATAKA KONISHI, KEI-ICHI NUMATA, KUMIKO SHIMODA, HIROSHI TSUKIURA, H ...
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 471-483
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The structures of Bu-1975C1 and C2 have been determined to be 4'-deoxybutirosins A and B. They contain the new deoxyaminosugar, 2, 6-diamino-2, 4, 6-trideoxy-α-D-xylo-hexopyranose (4-deoxyneosamine C).
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  • NOBORU OTAKE, KAZUO FURIHATA, KATSUMI KAKINUMA, HIROSHI YONEHARA
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 484-486
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KAZUO NAKAHAMA, TOYOKAZU KISHI, SEIZI IGARASI
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 487-488
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • SENJI HORI, TSUTOMU SAWA, TAKEO YOSHIOKA, TOMOHISA TAKITA, TOMIO TAKEU ...
    1974 Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 489-491
    Published: 1974
    Released: April 12, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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