Japanese Journal of Phytopathology
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
Volume 12 , Issue 2-4
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Hiromu YOSHII
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 85-96
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The occurrence of physiologic specialization in the causal fungus of the “Bakanae” disease of rice has already been observed by several authors. Certain strains of the fungus have the power to cause strongly the overgrowth of rice seedlings, while some others check their growth. There are undoubtedly some strains which show the intermediate character as to the growth-promotion of the host plant. Moreover, from previous investigations it is clear that the causal fungus isolated from rice seedlings is capable of attacking several other plants and causing their characteristic overgrowth. On the other hand, some investigators have carried out the interesting experiments, showing that the filtrate of cultures of a certain strain of the causal fungus is able to produce the phenomenon characteristic of the “Bakanae” disease in the absence of the mycelium. Consequently, the writer treated the overgrowth property shown by the presence of the causal fungus, distinguishing from the similar property shown by its absence. The latter is called “virulence” in the present paper, as compared with the proper pathogenicity.
    The present paper deals with the results of the writer's investigations carried out in order to solve the following two problems.
    1. Whether the tendency in the extent of pathogenicity shown by a strain is similar or not to that of virulence shown by the same strain.
    2. Whether the tendency in the extent of pathogenicity as well as of virulence for other plants is similar or not to that for rice seedlings.
    From repeated experiments the writer recognized safely the following conclusions.
    1. Both the pathogenicity and the virulence in the causal fungus of the “Bakanae” disease of rice seedlings are different in their extent according to strains, as has already been reported by the previous investigators.
    2. The pathogenicity and the virulence shown by a strain have a similar tendency in their extent.
    3. The data obtained in repeated experiments with wheat seedlings showed that the tendency in the extent of pathogenicity as well as of virulence for that plant seems to be quite parallel to that for rice seedlings.
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  • Yosito IWATA
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 97-108
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. In the present experiments have been observed the points of penetration of several Peronosporaceous fungi inoculated on the under surfaces of the leaves of their hosts and other plants.
    The fungi and their hosts on which the inocula were collected are as follows:
    Peronospora Brassicae GÄUM. Brassica chinensis L., B. chinensis L. var. KOMATSUNA MATSUM. et NAKAI, B. chinensis L. var. oleifera MAKINO, B. pekinensis RUPR., B. oleracea L., B. Rapa L.
    P. parasitica (PERS.) FR. Capsella Bursa-pastoris MOENCH.
    P. sp. Cleome spinosa JACQ.
    P. Stellariae-uliginosae SAWADA. Stellaria uliginosa MURR.
    P. Viciae sativae GÄUM Vicia sativa L.
    P. Trigonotidis S. ITO et TOKUNAGA Trigonotis peduncularis BENTH.
    P. variabilis GÄUM Chenopodium album L. var. centrorubrum MAKINO
    P. Spinaciae LAUBERT Spinacia oleracea L.
    Bremia Saussurae SAWADA Hemistepta carthamoides O. KUNTZE
    Plasmopara nivea (UNGER) SCHRÖT. Cryptotaenia japonica HASSK.
    P. viticola (BERK. et CURT.) BERL. et de TONI Vitis Thunbergii SIEB. et ZUCC. var. typica MAKINO
    Pseudoperonospora Humuli (MIYABE et TAKAHASHI) WILSONHumulus japonicus SIEB. et ZUCC.
    2. In all of the eight species of the genus Peronospora, penetrations were observed to occur on the whole through the boundary line of the epidermal cells. Penetration through the stomata or through the free surface of the epidermal cells did occur in some cases, though in a very small proportion. For instance, on inoculating Brassica chinensis L. var. KOMATSUNA MATSUM. et NAKAI with Peronospora Brassicae GÄUM. collected from this plant, the ratio of the penetrations through boundary line, stomata and free surface were calculated to be 95.6-98.9%, 0.8-3.9% and 0.0-0.8% respectively in experiments repeated three times.
    3. The points of penetration of Peronospora Brassicae GÄUM. are not affected by the removal of the wax on the leaves of its hosts. Also those of P. Brassicae GÄUM., P. variabilis GÄUM. and P. Spinaciae LAUBERT were ascertained to be in different to the grade of maturity of the leaves of their hosts.
    4. Bermia Saussurae SAWADA also mostly penetrates through the boundary line of the epidermal cells. But the stomatal penetrations seem to be considerably frequent, though the percentage was not calculated.
    5. In contrast with the case of the Peronospora species, penetrations of Plasmopara viticola, Plasmopara nivea and Pseudoperonospora Humuli were observed to occur only through stoma.
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  • Takesi ITO
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 109-115
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The rot-disease of seedlings in nursery-beds is one of the most serious diseases of the rice plant in Japan. This disease had been recognized by some investigators to be caused by a water mould, Achlya prolifera (NEES) DEBARY (Achlya prolifera NEES). However, in 1931 and 1933, ITO and his coworkers reported that the disease is caused by some species of Saprolegniaceae, Pythiomorpha and Pythium.
    The present paper deals with the results of the writer's inoculation experiments of some aquatic fungi on rice seedlings, in which seven species belonging to Saprolegniaceae and nine species of Pythium were used. The names of these sixteen fungi, which were isolated by the writer from water in Kyoto, are as follows: Saprolegnia Thureti DEBARY, S. mixta DEBARY, S. monoica PRINGSH. var. glomerata TIESENHAUSEN, Achlya racemosa HILDEBRAND, A. imperfecta COKER, A. Oryzae ITO et NAGAI, Aphanomyces helicoides v. MINDEN, Pythium tenue GOBI, P. angustatum SPARROW, P. torulosum COKER et PATTERSON, P. aphanidermatum (EDSON) FITZPATRICK, P. helicum ITO, P. proliferum DEBARY, P. marsipium DRECHSLER, P. polypapillatum ITO, and P. pleroticum ITO.
    The writer's inoculation experiments were carried out using the seedlings grown on SACHS' solution containing 2% agar or the sterilized field soil covered with water. In the experiments each fungus to be tested were inoculated on the seeds as soon as they were sown.
    The pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum and P. helicum was extremely strong and that of the other seven species of Pythium seemed to be moderate, but all the species tested, which belong to Saprolegniaceae, showed a very weak pathogenicity. The pathogenicity of these aquatic fungi was suggested to be more destructive when the rice plants were cultivated at lower temperatures.
    Judging from the writer's experiments Pythium species seem to be more important than the fungi belonging to Saprolegniaceae as the causal organisms of the rot-disease of rice-seedlings.
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  • Sin'iti ISHIYAMA, Tadao MISAWA
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 116-130
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. The severeness of a stunt disease of radish at Sizuoka in the autumn of 1939 attracted our intention. Studies on symptoms, transmission, host range and properties of the Japanese stunt virus has been made, the results of which are presented in this paper.
    2. Heavily diseased radish is stunted and show remarkable reduction in size of root. The symptoms of the diseased leaf consist of vein-clearing, ruffle, mottle, malformation, vein-banding, enation. and string-like protoruded vein. Mottle also appears on the surface of pod and peduncle.
    3. X-body has not been observed in the diseased leaf tissue.
    4. This stunt virus is readily transmissible by mechanical inoculation using carborundum as an abrasive. The incubation period ranges from 6 to 15 days.
    5. The stunt virus is detected in roots, leaves, peduncles, pods and unmature seeds of the affected plant. The virus in the seeds is active in its milky stage, but seems to be not in mature seeds.
    6. It seems to be inactivated by heating for 10 minutes at 70°C, and does not cause infection when press-out juice is diluted up to 15000 times. It passes through the Berkefeld's filters, V, N and W. The virus retains its infectivity in vitro after ageing for 23 days, and in dry for 39 days in dry disease leaf.
    7. Succesful attempts were made in the green-house to transmit this stunt virus by means of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae SULZ.) and the false cabbage aphid (Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae DAVIS).
    8. The host range of the stunt virus includes 10 species of plants representing 4 genera in 4 families. In the family Cruciferae, infection was obtained on rape, leaf mustard, pe-tsai, radish, stock, leaf-mustard, pe-tsui, pak-choi, turnip, Santosai (Brassica pekinesis RUPR var. dentata MATSUM. et NAKAI), Mibuna (Brassica japonica SIEB. var. indivisa MAKINO).
    9. The stunt disease of radish in question, appears to be a new one as there exists considerable differences between other cruciferous mosaic diseases.
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  • L. HINO, S. HIRATA, T. TORII
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 131-138
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The viruses of 49 species of agricultural crops and weeds were inoculated on the “Bright yellow” tobacco plant by rubbing the leaf with emery, and 15 species among them were proved to be able to infect it. The severest symptoms was observed on it when infected with the virus from tomato, potato, indian corn, radish, cucumber, Clerodendron trichotomum or Commelina bengalensis.
    In view of these results it may be considered that certain crops and weeds growing in or near tobacco field can carry the virus disease to the tobacco plant. The eradication of such wild host plants may be very important in controlling the virus disease of tobacco plant.
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  • Iwao HINO, Gozaburo DOKE
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 139-145
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The tobacco leaves infected with viruses increase in size of the midribs and decrease in thickness of the blades, varying according to the sorts of viruses and the condition of the diseases. The stomata of the diseased leaves increase in size and decrease in number, showing no difference in them according to the sorts of viruses. The X-bodies are invariably found in the epidermal cells and hairs, and the size of nuclei varies inversely as that of the X-bodies.
    The flowers are deformed morphologically and have X-bodies in the cell contents. The size of pollens varies with the sorts of viruses, and no difference in size of X-bodies is recognized. The X-bodies locomote in the germ-tubes in case of germination of the pollens.
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  • [in Japanese]
    1943 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 146-166
    Published: 1943
    Released: August 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • M. YOSHIDA
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 167-180
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Y. INOUE
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 181-190
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • M. NAGAI
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 191-194
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • I. TADA
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 194-197
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • S. TAKIMOTO
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 198-205
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • I. TADA
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 205-208
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • S. TAKIMOTO
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 209-212
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • H. OKAMOTO
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 212-213
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Y. IWATA
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 214-216
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • H. OKAMOTO
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 217-230
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
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  • H. YOSHII
    1943 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 231-245
    Published: 1943
    Released: August 10, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Y IIZUKA
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-4 Pages 246-249
    Published: 1942
    Released: September 30, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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