Japanese Journal of Phytopathology
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
Volume 48 , Issue 3
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
  • Susumu YAMANAKA
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 245-248
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Hiroyuki TSUYAMA
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 249-251
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Hajime KATO
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 252-254
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Takao ARAKI
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 255-257
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Shigetou NAMBA
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 258
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Toshihiro OMURA
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 259
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Masatoki TAGA
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 260
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Hari P. NANDA, Srijib GANGOPADHYAY
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 261-266
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The first (34.52%) and the second (29.76%) leaves of rice seedlings showed typical tip burn symptom progressing downward, which eventually ran the entire leaf length, resulting in early senescence. In vivo sporulation was greater from freshly developed lesion, so the primary tip burn lesion developed on seedlings can serve as an efficient means and immediate source of secondary infection. Two semiaxial germ tubes from a single polar cell and frequent germination of intercalary cells along with the two polar cells were also noted.
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  • Michiaki IWATA, Hisako IWAMATSU, Yukio SUZUKI, Tetsuro WATANABE, Yasuh ...
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 267-274
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The peroxidase inducers, which have the ability to induce the peroxidase production in leaf tissue of rice plant, were isolated from the homogenate of conidia and mycelia of rice blast fungus (Pyricularia oryzae Cavara). On polyacrylamide gel electrophoregram, the isozyme profile of peroxidases of rice leaf treated with the homogenate of blast fungus was similar to the one of rice leaf inoculated with the pathogen. The augmentation of peroxidase in rice plant by the application of inducers was inhibited in the presence of metabolic inhibitors such as formycin A, cycloheximide and blasticidin S. Three and two inducers were separated respectively from the supernatant of conidial and mycelial homogenates by molecular sieving chromatogram. Molecular weights of the inducers separated from the conidial homogenate were estimated to be approximately 700 (CI), 10, 000 (CII) and 70, 000 (or>70, 000, CIII) daltons by Sephadex G-50 gel-filtration using dextrans and other authentic sugars as standards. Two inducers separated from the mycelial homogenate, MI and MII, were eluted in the similar fractions to CI and CIII respectively. Crude inducers showed the inductive activity when applied at a concentration lower than 312.5ng per injured spot (2mm in diameter). It was suggested from these results that the rice plant might recognize the pathogen by means of the substances such as the peroxidase inducers which were produced by the pathogen. It is also worthwhile to investigate further these peroxidase inducers may act as inducer of disease resistance reaction in host plant or not, because many reports described the positive correlation between the augmentation of peroxidase activity and elevation of disease resistance in host plant.
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  • Naoyuki MATSUMOTO, Toru SATO, Takao ARAKI
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 275-280
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Typhula ishikariensis isolates were collected from various parts of Hokkaido. There were two genetically different groups which did not mate with each other; one was termed biotype A, and the other was further divided into two by cultural characteristics, i.e., biotypes B and C. Biotype A was identical to T. ishikariensis and T. ishikariensis var. ishikariensis. Biotype B was not identical to T. idahoensis or T. ishikariensis var. idahoensis. Biotype C was similar to T. ishikariensis var. canadensis. Biotype A tended to occur inland where deep snow cover lasts for a long time. Biotype B was obtained mainly from the coastal regions where snow cover is thin and short in time. The distribution of biotype C was irregular. Taxonomic significance of the genetics and allopatry in the T. ishikariensis complex is discussed.
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  • Hironori KOGA, Takashi KOBAYASHI, Osamu HORINO
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 281-289
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The mode of infection by Pyricularia oryzae Cav. in the rice leaf (the top leaf of the 7.5-leaf-stage seedlings) was compared electronmicroscopically between the compatible combination of race 037 and var. Koshihikari (resistance gene +), and the incompatible combination of race 037 and var. Fukunishiki (resistance gene Pi-z) 5 days after inoculation. In the acute type lesions of the compatible combination, the hyphae rich in lipid granules (0.75μm in diameter), cytoplasmic matrix and normal cell organelles were found densely in the host epidermis, parenchymatous cells and vessels. In the parenchymatous cells, the host cytoplasmic membrane and cell organelles were observed to be destroyed by the blast fungus. In the incompatible combination, invaded hyphae were found in epidermal cells, necrotic parenchymatous cells and stomatal chambers. In the epidermal cells, both host and fungus appeard moribund. In the necrotic parenchymatous cells, the hyphae were transformed at various grades, and mitochondria in the hyphae were swollen, and some of the hyphae seemed to be deceased with granulation of their contents. The hyphae in the necrotic cells were observed to be less in lipid granules and their vacuoles developed more remarkably. Moreover, gathering of lamellae in degenerated chloroplasts and a great number of high electron dense granules (0.05∼0.20μm in diameter) was observed in the necrotic parenchymatous cells. In the substomatal chambers, the hyphae were rich in cytoplasmic matrix, appearing to be vivid. In the parenchymatous cells neighbouring the affected substomatal chambers, invaded hyphae were also found frequently.
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  • Yoshikatsu FUJITA, Hozumi SUZUKI
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 290-294
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The relationship between the aggressiveness of Pyricularia oryzae and the severity of rice blast disease was investigated with race 047 infecting rice cultivar Yamatenishiki. The outbreak of blast disease on Yamatenishiki was slight for one or two years after initial occurrence of race 047, but became severe in the third year. It seemed that this phenomenon was due to the high infective ability and the much sporulation of the isolates from lesions formed in the third year.
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  • Ichiro UYEDA, Eishiro SHIKATA
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 295-300
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The structure of rice dwarf virus was studied using the negative staining technique. Analysis of selected particles showed the existence of 92 holes surrounded by 180 morphological units which were arranged in icosahedral symmetry. The morphological units are arranged in a way that two of them are shared by each one of the neighboring holes.
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  • Manabu UMEKAWA, Yasumasa WATANABE
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 301-307
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Angular leaf spot of cucumber caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans occurs severely under the conditions of low temperature and high humidity such as the open-field cultivation in the northern district of Japan and the winter cultivation under plastic house. The present studies were carried out to clarify the effects of humidity and temperature on the occurrence of angular leaf spot of cucumber, and to establish the control measure of the disease by means of humidity control in the plastic house. Angular leaf spot developed severely at 15-25C, and slightly at 10C and 30C in high humidity room. The optimum temperature for disease develpoment was 25C. On leaves of cucumber plants inoculated with causal bacteria and placed at various relative humilities for 7 days, angular leaf spot developed more severely at over 90-94% relative humidity than at 83-85%. Typical large lesions developed at over 90-94% relative humidity, but only minute lesions developed at 83-85% relative humidity. Plants kept in a moist chamber for 24 hours after inoculation showed large lesions, but plants removed earlier from moist chamber less than 6 hours after inoculation showed only minute lesions. Lesions were formed even when plants were transfered into a chamber of 40-60% relative humidity immediately after inoculation. Daily keeping of inoculated plants in saturated humidity conditions more than 6 hours formed typical large lesions. On the contrary, minute lesions were only formed by the daily keeping for less than 3 hours. Occurrence of angular leaf spot was suppressed to an appreciable extent by means of humidity control at night to the level of 80-90% relative humidity by using the dehumidifiers equipped in the plastic house. It was demonstrated also from the practical point of view that high humidity at night in the plastic house could be reduced to the level of 80-90% relative humidity by using an ordinary type of hot-air heater.
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  • Koji KAGEYAMA, Tadao UI
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 308-313
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The propagules of Pythium acanthophoron, P. paroecandrum, P. spinosum and Pythium sp., which were responsible for persistance of the fungi in field soils, were shown by direct observation to be the oospore or zoosporangium. They survive in small particles of organic matter and/or soils. P. myriotylum survives in the residues of bean roots and they act as the primary infection sources.
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  • Kuniyuki MIYAJIMA
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 314-319
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    In 1980, bacterial streak of rye caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. cerealis (Hagborg 1942) Dye 1978 occurred in Hokkaido, Japan. The lesions on the leaves became at first water-soaked, dark-green spots and gradually elongate to form translucent brown streaks. The surface of the lesions was often covered with milky droplets of bacterial exudate under humid conditions and with thin, transparent films and/or yellow, resinous granules of excudates under dry conditions. Typical symptoms were produced on rye, barley, wheat and quack grass but not on smooth bromegrass, orchardgrass, timothy or rice by artificial inoculation. The bacteriological characteristics of the pathogen were determined: Cells were non-spore forming rods with a single flagellum, Gram-negative and aerobic. Yellow pigment and slime were produced on nutrient glucose agar. Glucose was oxidatively metabolized, but Kovacs' oxidase, urease and tyrosinase were negative. H2S and ammonia were produced, but not 2-ketogluconate, indole or acetoin. Aesculin, Tween-80 and starch were hydrolysed, but not margarine or sodium hippurate. Gelatin was liquefied, and nitrate was not reduced. Growth on nutrient agar was inhibited by 0.02% TTC. Asparagine was inadequate as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Acid was produced from arabinose, xylose, glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, glycerol, cellobiose and trehalose, but not from rhamnose, maltose, raffinose, inulin, salicin, mannitol, sorbitol, adonitol, dulcitol or α-methyl-D-glycoside. Acetate, citrate, malate, succinate, propinate and lactate were utilized but not oxalate, gluconate or tartrate.
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  • Fumihiro TERAMI, Satoshi T. OHKI, Tadao INOUYE
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 320-323
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Setsumi ITOI, Mikio NOZU, Toshiyuki KAMACHI, Masatoshi ONUKI, Yasue KU ...
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 324-329
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Tomio USUGI, Tsuneo TSUCHIZAKI
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 330-332
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Citrus mosaic virus (CiMV) was easily detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in various parts of satsuma orange plants, especially in newly sprouted leaves. Two to twenty ng/ml of CiMV and satsuma dwarf virus which is closely related serologically to CiMV could be detected by this technique. However, in the case of heterologous combination of coating γ-globulin and conjugate the ELISA values were reduced.
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  • Koji KAGEYAMA, Tadao UI, Yasusaburo NARITA, Hiroshi YAMAGUCHI
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 333-335
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The soybean plants in monoculture plots in Hokkaido Prefectural Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station showed severe necrosis of roots, and their growth was retarded. Pythium myriotylum and Pythium sp., pathogenic to soybean plants, were isolated only from the necrotic root tissues in monoculture. When ridomil, N-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl) alanine methyl ester, was drenched to the soil collected from the monoculture plots, the roots of soybean seedlings grown in the soil remained healthy. These results suggest that the symptoms of soybean plants in monoculture are caused by the infections of P. myriotylum and Pythium sp.
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  • Keiichi TOMARU, Susumu KUBO, Yoichi TAKANAMI
    1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 336-339
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 340-405
    Published: July 25, 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1982 Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 413
    Published: 1982
    Released: February 19, 2009
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