Japanese Journal of Phytopathology
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
Volume 47 , Issue 1
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Osamu HORINO, T. W. MEW, G. S. KHUSH, Akinori EZUKA
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 1-14
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two differential systems for distinguishing pathogenic groups of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae, the causal organism of bacterial leaf blight of rice, have been developed in Japan and at IRRI independently of each other. This experiment was designed to make a comparative study of both differential systems. The needle pricking method alone was adopted for inoculation in this study, because a highly significant correlation was observed between the scores based on the needle pricking method and the clipping method developed in Japan and at IRRI, respectively. Five rice differentials from Japan: Kinmaze, Kogyoku, Te-tep, Wase Aikoku 3 and Java 14, and five from IRRI: IR8, IR20, IR1545-339, DV85 and Cas 209, with specific genes for resistance identified in respective countries were evaluated at reproductive stage against the Japanese and the Philippine isolates. Japanese differentials Kogyoku and Te-tep were as susceptible as Kinmaze to all the Philippine isolates. Wase Aikoku 3 and Java 14, however, were resistant to all of them. IRRI differentials showed different reactions to the Japanese isolates. IR8, carrying no functional major gene for resistance to the four Philippine groups, was resistant to the Japanese groups, II, III and V. IR20 was resistant to Japanese groups I and V, but susceptible to groups II, III and IV. IR1545-339 and DV85 were resistant to all the five Japanese groups. Cas 209, which was resistant to the Philippine group II, was susceptible to all the five Japanese groups. The results indicated that rice differentials developed in Japan and at IRRI were individually distinct in their reaction to the groups of both countries.
    Forty-nine varieties of japonica and indica rices were evaluated for their resistance to four Philippine groups. Reaction patterns of the forty-nine varieties to four Philippine groups did not coincide with their respective Japanese varietal groups classified according to five Japanese groups. Virulence of sixty-two isolates in the Philippines were evaluated on the ten rice differentials of Japan and IRRI. Sixty-one out of sixty-two were similar to isolate T7133 (Japanese group III) on Japanese differentials, but showed different reaction to IRRI differentials. It appears that the viulence of the Philippine isolates was not comparable to any group of Japan.
    Download PDF (1833K)
  • Katsumi AKUTSU, Keido Ko, Tomomasa MISATO
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 15-23
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Glucose or sucrose enhanced germination of conidia, formation of primary appressoria and elongation of superficial hyphae, but did not induce infection by Botrytis cinerea on cucumber leaves. By enhancing conidial concentration in glucose or sucrose solution, however, B. cinerea produced significant lesions. When the conidial concentration exceeded 1×107 conidia/ml in 5% glucose or 5% sucrose solution, inoculated conidia fused with each other and formed netted structures on cucumber leaves. Similar fusions were also reported in the process of infection by Fusarium nivale. Hyphae growing out from the netted structures were more vigorous than hyphae or germ tube from single conidia. The hyphae from the structures formed appressoria, which belong to the second type of simple appressoria group. From the appressoria, infection pegs developed through epidermal cell walls. In 24hr after inoculation, infection hyphae were observed in the epidermal cells, and also in mesophyll cells 48hr after inoculation. It seems that glucose induces the conidial fusion and formation of the netted structures under the condition of more than a given concentration of conidia. The netted structures are thought to play a role of supplying nutrients for the infection by B. cinerea.
    Download PDF (1901K)
  • Toshimichi YOSHIZAKI
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 24-28
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The addition of bentonite suspension to inoculum allowed the recovery of infectivity of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) on Nicotiana glutinosa L. from the homogenates of aphids which had been fed on infected tobacco, but the infectivity recovered was fairly low, as compared to that recovered from aphids fed on plant extracts through a membrane. Infectious TMV on N. glutinosa could be recovered from a single ventriculus which was dissected from aphids fed on purified TMV, by an addition of bentonite suspension to the homogenates. A very small amount of infectious TMV was recovered from intestines including hindgut, but not from the remainders of the dissected aphids. The virus from one thousand aphids fed on purified TMV at 18.5mg/ml through a membrane was purified by differential centrifugation. As a result, the total amount of TMV obtained was 2.21mg, and the average amount per aphid was calculated at 2.21μg.
    Download PDF (245K)
  • Kiroku KOBAYASHI, Fumio TANAKA, Norio KONDO, Tadao UI
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 29-34
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A selective medium was developed for isolation of Cephalosporium gregatum from soil. This medium (pH 5.5) consisted of the following ingredients per liter of distilled water: galactose, 5.0 g; peptone, 5.0 g; KH2PO4, 1.0 g; MgSO4⋅7H2O, 0.5 g; sodium borate, 0.5 g; PCNB, 0.5 g; sodium cholate, 0.5 g; streptomycin sulfate, 0.2 g; tetracycline HCl, 0.05 g; agar, 20g. This medium was more efficient for the quantitative detection of propagules of C. gregatum from soil than ASA, GWA or Martin medium. With this medium, populations of C. gregatum in many infested adzuki bean field soils were estimated and it was found that there was high correlation between disease index and populations of C. gregatum. Furthermore, by sieving technique it was confirmed that C. gregatum propagules could survive in soil.
    Download PDF (797K)
  • Ryutaro SAKAI
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 35-41
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cell wall free protoplasts were prepared from coleoptiles of oats and Italian ryegrass. When the protoplasts were exposed to 1mM coronatine and 0.6M mannitol, protoplasmic streaming stopped and cytoplasm aggregated toward one side of the protoplasts within 30min. At this initial stage, the plasma membrane seemed to have spherical shape and smooth surface, and then the protoplast contracted with time. Plasmolytic ability remained in the epidermal root hair cells of host plant after treatment with coronatine at 2.5mM or 1mM for 24 and 48hr. On the other hand, coronatine-induced hypertrophy of potato tuber tissue were markedly inhibited by N, N-dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide. The results suggest a close association between coronatine and membrane-bound ATPase. In addition, coronatine already changed the permeability 24-48hr before the development of hypertrophy on potato tuber tissues. These results suggest that the disruption of the cytoplasm induced by coronatine may be due to secondary effects brought about indirectly by physiological changes in the plasma membrane.
    Download PDF (1541K)
  • Hiromitsu FURUYA, Tadao UI
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 42-49
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The macroconidial germination of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli was inhibited in the field soil of Kitami Agricultural Exp. Sta. in Kun-neppu (K-soil) which was suppressive to common bean root rot. The inhibition was nullified by autoclaving or steaming (60-82C), and partially nullified by γ radiation of the soil. It was re-established when the autoclaved soil was inoculated with a small amount (1/100) of original soil or Tokachi soil which is conducive to the disease. Also, it was partially re-established by the inoculation with the water extract of K-soil, but was failed to re-establish when the extract was autoclaved or filtered through membrane filter. From these results, the suppression of germination in K-soil was suggested to be biological origin. Furthermore, in autoclaved, aerated steamed or γ radiated K-soil, the germination rate of macroconidia was slow in comparison with equally treated conducive Tokachi soil and the morphology of germ tubes was abnormal. This germination delaying effect found in sterilized K-soil possibly operates in untreated K-soil and concerned with the inhibition of germination of macroconidia.
    Download PDF (1389K)
  • Osamu HORINO
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 50-57
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A survey of geographical distribution of pathogenic groups of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae in Japan was conducted. The isolates collected from various localities of Japan in 1977 and 1979 were examined for the qualitative virulence to five differential rice varieties. Of the 453 isolates tested, 266 (58.7%) were classified as bacterial group I, 141 (31.1%) as group II, 41 (9.1%) as group III, and 5 (1.1%) as group IV. The isolates of predominant groups I and II were found to be distributed in almost all localities of Japan. The isolates of group III were found in central and western parts of Japan, particularly in Nagano, Shizuoka, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, and Kagoshima prefectures. Five isolates of group IV were found: 2 of them in Okinawa and 3 in Nagasaki prefectures. No isolate belonging to group V was found in this test. In most of prefectures in both Kyushu and Shikoku regions, group II was isolated most frequently. Such a high incidence of group II may be attributed to predominant cultivation of Kogyoku group varieties which can be attacked by group II. However, the results that groups II, III and IV which can attack Kogyoku group varieties were found in the regions where Kinmaze group varieties had been cultivated extensively, suggest that some other factors must be involved in determining distributions of bacterial groups. In Akita and Yamagata prefectures located in nothern part of Japan, group II has been found to be distributed for the first time in this test. It is conceivable that in Nagasaki and Okinawa prefectures, group IV as well as groups I, II and III was distributed predominantly with high frequency. Most of the isolates belonging to groups II, III and IV were obtained from Kinmaze group varieties. Since there are the diverse distributions of pathogenic groups, it was pointed out that genetic and pathological approach to use horizontal resistance should be considered for reducing damage from the breakdown of vertical resistance by the variation in pathogenecity of the causal bacterium.
    Download PDF (473K)
  • T. W. MEW, C. M. VERA CRUZ, R. C. REYES
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 58-67
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Infection from strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae on IR8, IR20 and IR1545 by the leaf clipping, pin-pricking and spray methods of inoculation suggested that neither lesion length nor disease score were affected. The incubation period was varied by methods of inoculation, but not by varietal resistance. Breeding lines derived from TKM 6 for Xa4 and DZ192 for xa5 sources of resistance were consistent with respective bacterial strains of the same virulence group, at maximum tillering stage of plant growth. The resistance was not complete. Significant differences in virulence between group 1 strains to TKM 6 and its derivatives and group 2 strains to TKM 6, DZ192 and their derivatives were observed. The effect of leaf age, as well as plant age, to infection varied from young to old, but the significant lesion length was observed only in compatible rice cultivar and bacterial strain combinations. The lesion length of breeding lines having “adult plant” resistance, such as IR1695 and IR944, gradually decreased from vegetative stage to reproductive stage against strains of all virulence groups evaluated. Lesion length of cultivars of moderate susceptibility comparable to partial resistance, was decreased significantly when inoculum dosage was lower, while the lesions on lines with adult plant resistance were not different from IR 8, the check variety.
    Download PDF (523K)
  • Nobumichi SAKO, Kazuhiro OGATA
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 68-70
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (173K)
  • Yasuji ASADA, Tomizo OHGUCHI
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 71-74
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (757K)
  • Tomizo OHGUCHI, Yasuji ASADA
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 75-77
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (606K)
  • Masayuki NOZUE, Kohei TOMIYAMA, Noriyuki DOKE
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 78-79
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (115K)
  • Shigeru KANEKO
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 80-83
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (694K)
  • Takahito NODA, Akio SATO, Zenji SATO
    1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 84-86
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The basal parts of leaf sheaths of rice seedlings were immersed in bacterial suspension of Xanshomonas campestris pv. oryzae at a concentration of 106 cells/ml and were injured by rice plant weevils for two days. The disease development was checked 14 days after treatment. Kresek infection occurred severely on rice seedlings injured by rice plant weevils.
    Download PDF (1582K)
  • 1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 87-97
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (945K)
  • 1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 97-108
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1055K)
  • 1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 108-117
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (887K)
  • 1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 117-130
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1261K)
  • 1981 Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 131-140
    Published: January 25, 1981
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (820K)
feedback
Top