Japanese Journal of Phytopathology
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
Volume 42 , Issue 3
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Kazuo ITO
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 234-236
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Yoshio HASHIOKA
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 237-238
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Akinori EZUKA
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 239-241
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Shoji KAMIMURA, Minoru NISHIKAWA, Yukiyoshi TAKAHI
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 242-252
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Fusarium oxysporum f. cucumerinum was sensitive to hymexazol (3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole, soil fungicide, Tachigaren®), whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae was tolerant. Growth of F. oxysporum f. cucumerinum in the liquid culture medium was considerably inhibited by 300μg/ml of hymexazol incorporated in the medium, while the growth of S. cerevisiae was not inhibited even at a concentration of 1, 000μg/ml. Differences in toxicity of hymexazol to these microorganisms primarily resulted from difference in uptake. No detectable metabolic conversion of hymexazol occurred in cultures of S. cerevisiae. Oxygen uptake by the intact cells of F. oxysporum f. cucumerinum was not greatly inhibited by concentrations of hymexazol that prevented growth of the fungus. Furthermore, the oxidation of succinate in mitochondrial preparations of the fungus was not significantly sensitive to the toxicant nor was respiration of intact cells. In addition, hymexazol at 500μg/ml did not affect oxygen uptake by mitochondria derived from rat-liver. A concentration of hymexazol giving great inhibition of growth (500μg/ml) did not cause detectable change in the permeability of the cells. Incorporation of phenylalanine into protein and uridine into ribonucleic acid (RNA) were inhibited considerably. Incorporation of thymidine into the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fraction of the mycelial cells was inhibited more than phenylalanine and uridine into protein and RNA respectively. From these results, it appeared that hymexazol inhibits the fungal growth by interfering with the DNA synthesis as primary site of action.
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  • Iwasaburo GOTO
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 253-260
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Fukunishiki and its parental cultivar Zenith were confirmed to have the same major resistance gene Pi-z in common, but the former was less resistant to the blast disease than the latter. In addition to Pi-z, Fukunishiki has one recessive gene, and Zenith one modifier Rb6, respectively, to control resistance to Ken 53-33. Responses of these two cultivars varied with inoculation methods and with growth conditions, and these two genes sometimes gave segregation ratios different from those that could be expected on the basis of dominancy of Pi-z. These phenomena were explained by the linkage relationships of Pi-z-ws, Pi-z-C and Rb6-la, of which recombination values were estimated to be 9.0%, 30.4% and 10.5%, respectively. A linear order of these three genes was proposed to be C-ws-Pi-z.
    The data of the sheath inoculation suggested that Rb6 plays an important part, and Pi-z a minor part, respectively, in the resistance of Zenith to isolates of IB-Group. Fukunishiki was significantly more susceptible to IB-Group than Zenith, but seemed to be slightly more resistant than the testers with Pi-z+.
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  • Kazuo ABIKO
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 261-265
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    In 1973, a new disease of Dendrobium was found in Mie Prefecture. In the beginning, small tiny brown spots occurred on either side of the leaves. They shortly developed into round to oval or irregular large spots. The diseased leaves gradually discolored, but spots on them left green borders. Eventually these leaves defoliated. Many pycnidia of a species of the genus Selenophoma were formed on old spots.
    The result of the artificial inoculation indicated that Dendrobium spp. were susceptible to this fungus, while Cattleya sp., Cymbidium sp., Miltonia sp. and Oncidium sp. did not develop any symptom of the disease. On the basis of differences in morphological characters and host range from the hitherto known species of the genus Selenophoma, the fungus was treated as a new species causing the leaf spot of Dendrobium.
    Selenophoma dendrobii Abiko, sp. nov.
    Foliicola; maculis amphigenus, primo brunneis, 0.5-1mm diam., dein griseo-brunneis vel cinereus, 5-10mm diam.; pycnidiis amphigenus immersis dein erumpentibus, brunneis vel atro-brunneis, globosis, 72-120μm diam., ostiolatis; conidiophoris simplicis, hyalinis; conidiis (pycnidiosporidiis) hyalinis, continuis, falcatis, 5-8×1-2μm.
    Hab. on living leaves of Dendrobium Formidible (S. Takagi) Griggs, Tsu, Mie Pref., Nov. 1. 1973, by K. Abiko (Type). Type: Herb. Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Res. Sta. (=Herb. National Science Museum, F-226369)
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  • Ikuo KIMURA, Shigetoshi MIYAJIMA
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 266-271
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    An antiserum against rice dwarf virus (RDV) was prepared by injecting a rabbit with the purified virus prepared from RDV-infected rice plants. The titer of the antiserum was 1/4096 when determined by the precipitin ring test, but was 1/1024 and 1/128 by the precipitin tube and agar gel tests, respectively. The dilution end points of RDV-antigen obtained were 1/2×(1.5)-9, 1/2×(1.5)-7, and 1/2×(1.5)-3mg/ml when determined by the precipitin ring, the precipitin tube, and agar gel tests, respectively. As determined by the ring test, RDV-antigen in the extracts from various parts of infected plants was observed in the descending order of the amount in old leaves, young leaves, leaf sheaths, calyptras, and roots, but was not in symptomless leaves. Concerning the distribution of RDV-antigen in a panicle, it was detected in all parts of the panicle, but not in embryo and endosperm. Distribution of RDV-antigen was tested in fixed sections of RDV-infected rice plants by staining with fluorescein-antibody. The location of the antigen was detected in all parts of the plants except symptomless leaves, embryo, and endosperm. These results are in accord with the results obtained by the ring tests with plant extracts. The antigen was observed being assembled like inclusion bodies that have been observed in the cells around phloem.
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  • Hiroshi YAEGASHI, Takashi KOBAYASHI
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 272-278
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Races C-1 and C-3 of Pyricularia oryzae were compared for their multiplying potential, i.e., time needed for fungus infection, number of susceptible lesions formed, sporulation in lesions, lesion size, and racial competition on two Kanto 51-type rice varieties, Tatsumimochi and Fukei 69, which are compatible to both races. Race C-3 produced fewer spores and smaller lesions than race C-1 on Tatsumimochi, but on Fukei 69 there was no difference between the two races in lesion size or number of spores produced. Tatsumimochi appears to have a race-specific factor that inhibits lesion expansion of race C-3. When the two varieties were inoculated with a mixture of spores of the two races, race C-3 was reisolated less frequently than race C-1 on Tatsumimochi, but on Fukei 69 the two races were reisolated with about an equal frequency. Race C-3 requires slightly shorter time for infection than race C-1 on both varieties. Apparently even in varieties that have no major genes for resistance against the prevalent races, there may be some race-specific factors that influence the distribution of the races. Antagonism and competition among races may also play a role in racial distribution.
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  • N. MATSUMOTO, K. TOMIYAMA, N. DOKE
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 279-286
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Electric potential difference (EPD) between the surfaces of potato-tuber disks infected by compatible and incompatible races of Phytophthora infestans and between each of them and noninfected ones were determined during the initial period of infection. EPD began to increase almost simultaneously with host wall penetration by both the incompatible and compatible races and the increase was already larger in the former than in the latter. Electric conductivity (EC) measurements of the exudates from the infected tuber disks showed that an increase in EC was also found in both the compatible and incompatible infections. The increase in EC was larger in the incompatible combination before hypersensitive death of infected cells occurred. In both incompatible and compatible combinations the increasing rate in EC was larger when the disks were inoculated 20hr after cutting rather than just after cutting. Leakage of preabsorbed 32P from potato-tuber disks was increased by infection with both the incompatible and compatible races, and the increase was higher in the former than in the latter. All these results suggested that the permeability of cell membranes of potato tuber disks increased very soon after the infection (or at the same time as penetration occurred) when they were inoculated with either incompatible or compatible races of P. infestans. However, the rate of increase seemed to be larger in the incompatible than in the compatible combination before hypersensitive cell death of the former occurred.
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  • Hirofumi KOBATAKE, Takeshi OSAKI, Akio YOSHIOKA, Tadao INOUYE
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 287-294
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Since 1972 an outbreak of a virus disease of tomato has been found in Nara Prefecture. The symptoms were characterized by yellowing and severe necrotic spots on leaves and necrotic streaks on petioles and stems. Necrotic symptoms were also observed on deformed fruits.
    By sap inoculation test 30 species in 8 families out of 36 species in 11 families were found to be susceptible to the causal virus. The symptoms observed were pronounced necrosis in many of the susceptible plants, especially of Solanaceae. In epidermal strips of infected tomato and Datura stramonium, cellular inclusions were easily observed. The virus was also transmitted by a thrips, Thrips tabaci, but not through infected tomato seeds. In crude sap prepared with 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) or distilled water, the thermal inactivation point of the virus was between 45 and 50C or 35 and 40C, the dilution end point was between 10-5 and 2×10-5 or 10-4 and 2×10-4, and the longevity in vitro was between 10 and 15hr or 5 and 10hr, respectively. Virus particles observed in leaf-dip preparation from diseased plants were found to be spherical, 70-90nm in diameter, presenting an outer layer structure when fixed with 0s04 vapor before negative staining with 2% PTA (pH 7.0). In unfixed preparations, most of the virus particles were deformed to various extents. ln ultrathin sections of the infected leaf cells of tomato, clusters of spherical virus particles of 70-90nm in diameter were frequently observed in cytoplasm enclosed in vesicles.
    From the above mentioned results, the causal virus was identified as tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). This is the first record of the occurrence of TSWV in tomato in Japan.
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  • Minoru WATANABE, Kiyoto NAKANISHI, Kunio KUMAKURA, Noriyuki SHIMOYAMA, ...
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 295-303
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Induction of resistance was studied in rice plant-Xanthomonas oryzae system by inoculating leaves primarily with incompatible strain or nonpathogen and challenging with a compatible strain. Lesion enlargement was markedly inhibited by the preliminary inoculation with incompatible strains of X. oryzae, but not with compatible strains. Inhibition was higher in the region located closer to the site of primary inoculation and was significant even in the tissue located 5cm apart from the site of primary interaction. Inhibition was highest when challenge inoculation was made 3 days after inducer inoculation and was remained effective until 9 days after preinoculation. Among 14 species of nonpathogenic bacteria tested, P. phaseolicola, X. citri, P. marginalis, and C. michiganense were highest in their ability to induce resistance, followed by P. solanacearum, X. campestris, P. lachrymans, E. carotovora, and X. phaseoli. C. sepedonicum, P. tabaci and A. tumefaciens were able to induce a weak resistance and X. pruni and X. phaseoli f. sp. sojense did not induce any resistance. These nonpathogenic bacteria, however, did not induce detectable resistance in the region located more than 3cm from the site of inducing interaction and when challenge inoculation was made 6 or more days after the inducer inoculation. Among saprophytes tested, 2 contaminants isolated from culture plates of X. oryzae produced a clear inhibition zone on plating and were also capable of inducing resistance, but 3 others isolated from healthy rice leaves did not induce resistance. Preliminary results suggested that neither nutritional competition nor production of antibacterial substance by the primary bacteria seemed responsible for this type of induced resistance, at least not with X. citri and P. tabaci.
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  • Tsuneo TSUCHIZAKI
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 304-309
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    A new elongated virus was isolated from a mulberry tree. Nine species of herbaceous plants were infected with the virus by sap inoculation. It caused indistinct local lesions and systemic mosaic on Chenopodium quinoa, indistinct local lesions on C. amaranticolor, and symptomless infection on other species. The virus was not transmitted through seeds of C. quinoa and by three species of aphids. In C. quinoa juice, infectivity was lost by heating 55-65C for 10min, by diluting at 103-104, and by aging at 20C for 3 to 7 days. The virus was purified by differential centrifugation followed by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation after clarification of homogenized C. quinoa leaf tissues with carbon tetrachloride. The ratio of UV absorption at 260 and 280nm for purified virus was 1.12-1.19 (260/280). The electron microscopic examination of purified preparation showed filamentous particles of about 700nm in length. A few filamentous particles and no inclusion were observed in cytoplasm of infected C. quinoa leaf cells in ultra-thin sections. Serologically, the virus was distantly related with carnation latent virus. When healthy mulberries (cv. Kairyo-Ichinose) were inoculated with the purified virus, 5 of 12 inoculated plants showed a few indistinct local lesions on inoculated leaves and caused systemic latent infection. From these results, it is inferred that the virus belongs to carnation latent virus group, and the name of mulberry latent virus is proposed.
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  • Tsutomu UEMATSU, Daizaburo YOSHIMURA, Koushi NISHIYAMA, Tadao IBARAKI, ...
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 310-312
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    A new type of seedling rot of rice was first discovered in Fukushima and Okayama Prefecture in 1974 and 1975. It occurred on young seedling in nursery flat prepared for rice transplanter. The disease was caused by the bacterium identified as Pseudomonas glumae, the rice grain rot bacterium. According to several experiments, it was assumed that the disease was caused by seed-borne and/or soil-borne pathogens.
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  • Satoshi T. OHKI, Yoji DOI, Kiyoshi YORA
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 313-316
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Keizo KATSUYA, Makoto KAKISHIMA, Shoji SATO
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 317-319
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Fujio KODAMA, Yukio SUGAWARA, Tatsuo YOKOYAMA
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 320-321
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Ikuo KIMURA
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 322-324
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Moo Ung CHANG, Yoji DOI, Kiyoshi YORA
    1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 325-328
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1976 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 329-390
    Published: July 25, 1976
    Released: February 19, 2009
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