Since the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) took effect in December 1993, the Access and Benefit Sharing of genetic resources (ABS) has been intensively discussed with regard to sustainable use of those resources. In relation to this discussion among the countries that are suppliers and users of genetic resources, the Bonn Guideline on ABS in 2002 and the Nagoya Protocol in 2010 have been successively adopted to implement ABS rules. Another treaty, the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) has also been adopted. Based on the current situation, special care should be taken for handling genetic resources, especially accessing and utilizing ex situ conserved collections that exist in overseas countries. The sovereign right of the countries of origin on their genetic resources has been clearly recognized in the treaties. Prior Informed Consent (PIC) and Mutually Agreed Terms (MAT) are the most important requirements to access genetic resources. In this guide, significant and important points are explained in detail as they reflect the spirit and regulation of CBD, ITPGRFA and other related guidelines/protocols for practical contact with collaborators, authorities and correspondents in the countries of origin of the genetic resources and the actual handling of materials for phytopathological research.
In 2013 and 2014, two types of disease symptoms were observed on the leaves of seedlings of commercial Nemesia caerulea in Japan. In 2013, leaves developed round, brown lesions that sometimes covered whole leaves and stems; in 2014, seedlings developed soft rot and had gray mold on the surface. Morphological and molecular data indicated that the pathogen in 2013 was Stemphylium lycopersici (Enjoji) W. Yamam. and in 2014 was Botrytis cinerea Pers. Inoculation tests proved the pathogenicity of both pathogens on the host. Since this is the first report of these diseases in Japan, we propose designating the diseases as Stemphylium leaf blight and gray mold of N. caerulea.