Japanese Journal of Phytopathology
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
Volume 53 , Issue 4
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Nobuaki MATSUYAMA, Satoshi WAKIMOTO
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 449-453
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Anti-blast substances (S-1 and its derivatives) produced in blast-infected and UV-irradiated rice leaves of three cultivars showing different horizontal resistance were analyzed quantitatively, in order to clarify the role of these substances in disease resistance. The production of the substance was caused not only in the inoculated leaves, but also in UV-irradiated leaves where brown spots appeared. While, the production was not observed in case of symptomless highly resistance and chemical damages tested. Negative correlation was observed between the amount of the substances formed and the degree of horizontal resistance at 7th day after inoculation. These results seem to indicate that these substances could associate secondarily with the resistance and the production relates closely with browning of host cells in the destruction process. The final conclusion, however, should be drawn after studies at the infection site. UV-damages were severer in aged leaves (lower leaves) and the degree of the damages was different in each cultivar. The amount of the anti-blast substances formed closely correlated with the degree of UV-damages. So far as tested cultivars concerned, the damages were less in horizontally weak cultivar than that of strong cultivar. Further studies on this point with various cultivars were required.
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  • Toshiki SHIOMI, Takashi SHIRAKAWA, Shoshiro TAKEUCHI, Toshikatsu &Ocir ...
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 454-459
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new disease of melon in greenhouses, characterized by the symptoms of hairy roots and galls, has been observed in Chiba prefecture since 1976. The disease occurs around the year, especially in spring and autumn. Fourteen bacterial isolates obtained from the affected hairy roots and root galls were proved to be pathogenic to melon by needle prick inoculation, exhibiting similar symptoms to those produced by natural infection. The bacterium was also pathogenic to cucumber, watermelon, tomato, rose and others. Fourteen bacterial isolates obtained were quite uniform in their bacteriological characteristics. On the basis of bacteriological characteristics and pathogenicity, the bacterium was identified as the biovar 1 of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Ricker, Banfield, Wright, Keitt & Sagen 1930) Conn 1942. The name of “hairy root of melon” was proposed for this disease.
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  • Surang KARNJANARAT, Kenichi TSUCHIYA, Nobuaki MATSUYAMA, Satoshi WAKIM ...
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 460-469
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fifty-one of the Japanese strains and 29 of the Thai strains of Erwinia carotovora isolated from various kinds of soft rot vegetables were investigated for their pathological, physiological and biochemical properties. On the basis of pathogenicity to potato, tomato, onion and cucumber, they were seperated into 4 groups. On the basis of the production of reducing substances from sucrose, casein hydrolysis, indole production, acid production from palatinose, sorbitol and α-methyl-D-glucoside, they could be distinguished into 7 biovars. With the exception of the ability to grow at 36C, the properties of 3 biovars (A-C) were similar to E.c. subsp. atroseptica (Eca). Other biovars (D-G) were identified as E.c. subsp. carotovora (Ecc). No relationship was found between biovar and pathovar.
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  • Takashi OKU, Shigetou NAMBA, Shuichi YAMASHITA, Yoji DOI
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 470-477
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Physiologic specialization of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici collected from fields in Japan during 1962, 1967 and 1984-1986 was examined by detached leaf culture method. Seven wheat cultivars carrying a single gene for resistance, Axminster×Cc8, Ulka×Cc8, Asosan×Cc8, Chul×Cc8, Khapli×Cc8, Hope and Sapporo-haru-komugi were used as basic differentials, and twenty races were identified. Taking the distribution of races in Europe and also the breeding program of resistant cultivars into consideration, cultivars, Normandie, Halle Stamm 13471, C.I. 12633, Weihenstephaner M1, Arthur, Vernal, 0224/52 and Transec were used as additional differentials. However, all additional differentials were highly or moderately resistant to all races found in Japan. Chul×Cc8 (resistance gene: Pm3b) was resistant to all races identified in Hokkaido region, and was susceptible to all races in Chugoku region. It was noted that all cultivars in basic differentials were susceptible to some races found in Japan. Evidences obtained in this study indicate the guideline for breeding program of resistant wheat cultivars against powdery mildew disease. Namely, a major gene for resistance should be used in combination with other major gene (s) especially with that of foreign cultivars or wild relatives, in addition to the other trait responsible for so-called quantitative resistance known as slow-mildewing or durable resistance.
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  • Tsuneo TSUCHIZAKI, Toshihiro OMURA
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 478-488
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The host range, transmission, cross-protection, antigenic relationships, and coat proteins of four distinct potyviruses (bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BlCMV), azuki bean mosaic virus (AzMV), and soybean mosaic virus (SMV)) were compared. BCMV, BlCMV, AzMV and SMV were easily distinguished by the host range and seed transmission. Two BCMV isolates, two BlCMV isolates and AzMV were serologically identical according to examination by agar gel diffusion plates containing 0.5% lithium 3, 5-diiodosalicylate. Five SMV isolates from Japan were serologically identical and distantly related to a SMV isolate from Thailand. BCMV, BlCMV and AzMV were distantly related to SMV. None of these viruses were serologically related to turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Positive cross-protection was found between BCMV and BlCMV, between BCMV and AzMV, and between BlCMV and AzMV. The molecular weights of the coat proteins of the virus isolates estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were 32.8×103(K) for two BCMV isolates, two BlCMV isolates and AzMV, 30.1K for five SMV isolates from Japan, 31.5K for a SMV isolate from Thailand, and 34K for TuMV. The patterns of the peptides of two BCMV isolates, two BlCMV isolates and AzMV after cleavage with Staphylococcus V8 protease appeared nearly identical. Likewise, polypeptide patterns of five SMV isolates from Japan were also very similar. Good correlation was found among serological typing, molecular weights, and peptide mapping data of 12 virus isolate proteins. These findings suggest that SMV is a distinct virus, while BCMV, BlCMV and AzMV are virus strains, not distinct viruses.
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  • Nobuo HAYASHI
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 489-494
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A selective medium (PPSM) was developed for the detection of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. konjaci (Ppk), the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight of konnyaku (Amorphophallus konjac), from plant debris and soil. The composition of the medium was as follows: 0.5g KH2PO4, 3.0g Na2HPO4⋅12H2O, 6.0g sodium tartrate, 2.0g (NH4)2SO4, 10μg L-leucine, 0.29g MgSO4⋅7H2O, 67mg CaCl2⋅2H2O, 0.25mg Na2M0O4⋅2H2O, 20mg phenol red, 2mg methyl violet, 12.5mg ampicillin sodium, 25mg cycloheximide, 50mg thiram-benomyl wettable powder, 15g agar in 1 liter of distilled water. Colony forming efficiency of Ppk on PPSM was higher than that on King B medium. Reduction percentage of soil bacteria on PPSM ranged from 81.6 to 92.5% of the total number of soil bacteria recovered on nutrient broth yeast extract agar. Ppk was easily detected from the residue of diseased leaflet by using PPSM.
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  • Katsumi AKUTSU, Tatsuyuki IRINO, Takanori TSUKAMOTO, Satoshi OKUYAMA
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 495-506
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A mycelial disk of benomyl-resistant strain (IHES-3) of Botrytis cinerea was contactcultured in the center of colony of benomyl-sensitive strain (IPCR-1). Mycelial disks, which were collected from IPCR-1 colony contacted with IHES-3, were placed on PSA media containing benomyl. IPCR-1 mycelial disk (PH-1) which was 1cm distant from IHES-3 disk showed resistance to benomyl. Benomyl showed MIC of 1, 000ppm to PH-1 which was a medial value between MIC to IPCR-1 (<3ppm) and that to IHES-3 (>3, 000ppm).Colonies and hyphae of PH-1 were morphologically similar to those of IPCR-1, but the growth was more or less poor in contrast to IPCR-1. In hyphae of PH-1, nuclei which were similar to those of IHES-3 were found in addition to nuclei that resemble those of IPCR-1. Pathogenicity of PH-1 to cucumber showed nearly middle grades of the two strains. PH-1 was stable in the above properties, even though the subculture was repeated more than ten times on PSA media. Hyphal fusion was observed between hyphae of IPCR-1 and IHES-3 on PSA medium. Also, in conidial coculture of the two strains on glass slides hyphal fusions of 6 types were observed, and the frequency was about 2.5% between hyphae of IPCR-1 and IHES-3. The light microscopy showed transfer of nuclei between the two strains by hyphal fusion, but did not whether karyogamy was followed or not.
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  • Kenji TAKAHASHI, Takeo YAMAGUCHI
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 507-515
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A method for the direct estimation of the number of resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae in soil by using a fluorescence microscope is described. After being mixed with tween 80 solution, the soil sample was filtered through sieves to remove coarse minerals and the filtrate was centrifuged. The pellet suspended in distilled water was mixed with a calcofluor white MR2 solution. The mixture solution was examined under a fluorescence microscope and the number of spores was counted. It was very easy to identify spores showing strong fluorescence. This method could be applied to infested soils containing 104 spores/g and slightly less, and also adopted for estimating the number of spores in different soil groups. This improved method has advantages due to the simplicity and shortening of the procedure, the easy enumeration of spores under a microscope and the high recovery efficiency of spores, as compared with the previous methods, and may be of value for practical use. Naturally infested soils in six fields were assessed for the contamination with spore concentrations of up to 105/g.
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  • Kimiharu INAGAKI, Takashi NAIKI
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 516-522
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Many isolates of Sclerotium fumigatum Nakata and S. oryzae-sativae Sawada from sheath blight-like lesions of rice plants in the paddy field were used for grouping by the hyphal anastomosis. Isolates from different lesions of the same sclerotial disease on a single rice hill were quite similar in the cultural characteristics. Perfect fusion without death of the cell was commonly observed when the hyphae of these isolates came into contact with each other on the plain agar medium. Therefore, single perfect fusion group (p-group), in which the perfect fusion was observed in the pairing test between two isolates, appeared to be dominant in a hill. When the disease caused by S. fumigatum or S. oryzae-sativae occurred widely in the field, 22-71 isolates of the respective fungus obtained from diseased plants in 30-35 plots (4.5-5.0m interval between plots) in the field were assigned to at least 9-34 p-groups. In many cases, single p-group tended to distribute in a limited part of the field.
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  • Toshihiro YAMADA
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 523-530
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: April 03, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Changes in the degree of lipid Peroxidation and the activity of enzymes which scavenge active oxygens were investigated during the development of pine wilt disease. Current branches of 4-year-old Japanese black pine seedlings inoculated with the pine wood nematode were used as test materials. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, increased in both the bark and xylem of inoculated seedling until dying of seedling. The increment of MDA content and the population growth of the nematode seem to reflect the degree of tissue deterioration. Changes in soluble protein content and peroxidase activity corresponded considerably to the change of MDA content. Peroxidase activity in the xylem increased more rapidly than that in the bark. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the xylem decreased after 4th week of inoculation. Catalase activity in the xylem decreased gradually after the inoculation. Trace of SOD activity and no catalase activity were detected in the bark. The present study suggests that damage of membrane-membrane lipid peroxidation-is involved in the development of pine wilt disease.
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  • Tsutomu ARIE, Shigetou NAMBA, Shuichi YAMASHITA, Yoji DOI, Toshio KIJI ...
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 531-539
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fusarium wilt of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lagenariae is a serious and wide-spread soil-borne disease in Japan. In some fields of Tochigi prefecture, welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) has been mix-cropped customarily as an associate crop with bottle gourd. Those fields showed little occurrence of the disease, in spite of continuous cropping of bottle gourd. This phenomenon suggested the relation between mix-cropping with welsh onion and control of the disease. From the subterranean parts of the welsh onion, Pseudomonas gladioli were isolated frequently, and some of these bacterial isolates showed antifungal activity to F. oxysporum f. sp. lagenariae on BPA plates. But as they were usually pathogenic to roots of welsh onion, we had to select, for practical use, isolate that antagonized strongly to F. oxysporum f. sp. lagenariae, had no pathogenicity to welsh onion or other plants, and multiplied well on subterranean parts of welsh onion. Such an isolate P. gladioli M-2196 (isolated from Miltonia sp.) was selected from 90 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. from 20 kinds of plants. For the purpose of biological control of Fusarium wilt of bottle gourd, we cultured P. gladioli M-2196 on BP broth up to 109 cells/ml, dipped the root systems of associate crop (welsh onion or chinese chive) in the cultural suspension for five min., and then bottle gourd was mix-cropped with associate crop in infected soil. With this treatment, occurence of Fusarium wilt was districtly suppressed. This mix-cropping using associate crop with P. gladioli M-2196 seemed to be a beneficial technique for biological control of soil-borne fungal diseases.
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  • Yuji NAGAI, Yong-Mun CHOI, Hiroshi TOCHIHARA
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 540-543
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new strain of TMV was isolated from both commercial seeds of sweet pepper cv. Tosa-Green and seedlings of sweet pepper cv. Shin-Sakigake showing mild mosaic in Chiba Prefecture. The mosaic symptom and local lesions were developed on the respective TMV-sensitive and resistant cultivars of sweet pepper infected with the virus but the virus was never infectious to tomatoes. Since it was serologically different from any of ordinary, tomato and pepper strains of TMV, it was designated as TMV-U.
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  • Makoto KOJIMA, Junichi NIITSU, Tohru TAKAHASHI
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 544-548
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Tsuto MORINAGA, Masato IKEGAMI, Kin-ichiro MIURA
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 549-553
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Tsukasa NUMATA, Mamoru SATO, Fukumi SAKAI
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 554-556
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Satoshi T. OHKI, Tadao INOUYE
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 557-561
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Kenzoh KOBAYASHI, Masahiro YOSHIDA, Takenori NAKAYAMA, Seiji KOGA
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 562-565
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In March 1982, pale brownish tumors, the size of which was around 2-15mm were found on the roots of melon (root stock cultivar: Kenkyaku) growing in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan. The symptom resembled to that caused by nematodes. However, nematodes could not be found in the tumor and nematocide was not effective to control the disease. The tumors discolored to brown or black with their development and the plants wilted in the daytime and finally withered. A kind of bacterium was isolated from the surface-unsterilized tumors. The young root of melon artificially inoculated with the isolate produced tumors showing peculiar appearance. The causal pathogen was identified as a species belonging to Actinomycetales from the result of morphological observation. This is the first record of the disease of melon caused by Actinomycetales and the name “root tumor of melon” was proposed.
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  • Shigehito TAKENAKA, Reiichi YOSHINO
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 566-569
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Tsutomu ARIE, Shigetou NAMBA, Shuichi YAMASHITA, Yoji DOI, Toshio KIJI ...
    1987 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 570-575
    Published: October 25, 1987
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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