Japanese Journal of Phytopathology
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
Volume 45 , Issue 5
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
  • Jiro TOGASHI
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 591-595
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A mixture of 6 phage-type strains of streptomycin resistant Erwinia carotovora was inoculated into several cruciferous plants and isolation frequency of each strain from diseased tissues was examined to test possible competition among strains in the host tissues. The strains I (phage-type: A), II (B), III (C), IV (D), V (E), and VI (F) were used in this experiment. After the symptom appearance, the pathogenic bacteria were periodically isolated by the dilution plating with modified Drigalski's medium which contains 100ppm streptomycin sulfate. All isolates were then phage-typed by spot test to estimate the isolation frequency of each phage-type strain. Strain III (C), IV (D), and VI (F) were isolated in early stage of infection. In every plants, strain VI (F) became predominant with passing of time after inoculation. The other strains such as I (A), II (B), and V (E) were not detected in later stage. To determine the predominance order among strains, the midribs of chinese cabbage were inoculated with different combination of strains. By testing the isolation frequency of each strain at 3 days after inoculation, it was made clear that predominance order among strains was VI (F), III (C), IV (D), V (E), and I (A), or II (B). When each strain was inoculated alone, only the original strain was isolated without any change in phage-type even in the later stage of disease development. These results suggest that when several strains of E. carotovora were inoculated simultaneously, some competition could occur among strains during disease development.
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  • Ryutaro SAKAI, Yôsuke MINO, Masako TAKACHI, Sawako ENOKI
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 596-602
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Effect of coronatine an extracellular toxin produced by Pseudomonas coronafaciens var. atropurpurea, on the decomposition of starch grains was examined using the tuber discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Shiretoko). Small-sized starch grains (below 30μm in diameter) were preferentially decomposed by coronatine treatment, accompanied by increasing cell size. Similarity was also found between coronatine and the bacterium treatment. Amylase activity increased considerably in the discs treated with coronatine, but phosphorylase and debranching enzyme activities kept almost unchanged. The swelling of the cell brought about by coronatine may be attributed to the increase in osmotic pressure resulted from starch decomposition, together with the loosening of the cell wall.
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  • Yôsuke MINO, Ryutaro SAKAI
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 603-607
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Two intracellular and an extracellular β-fructofranosidases (E.C. #3.2.1.26) (Int I, Int II and Ext I ) were obtained from the timothy leaf spot fungus, Cladosporium phlei and the culture filtrate, respectively, by DEAE Sephadex A-50 column chromato-graphy. All these enzymes hydrolysed sucrose, raffinose and β-2, 6-fructosan (prepared from the timothy haplocorm), but were incapable of hydrolyzing inulin and methyl-α-D-glucoside. Only Ext I showed higher affinity to β-2, 6-fructosan than to sucrose, differing from the two intracellular enzymes. The optimum pHs of Int I, Int II and Ext I were 5.0, 5.0 and 5.5, respectively, regardless of the substrates tested. Ext I was relatively heat stable as compared with Int I and Int II.
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  • Hiromitsu FURUYA, Masayuki OWADA, Tadao UI
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 608-617
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Common root rot of beans has never been observed in a certain area of Tokoro County, Kitami, Hokkaido. Disease suppressiveness of the soil collected from the area (K-soil, from Kitami; volcanic, black-colored, loam) was compared with that of the known conducive soil from Tokachi (T-soil; volcanic, red- to brown-colored, loamy sand). The root rot of beans in the soil sartificially inoculated with macroconidia of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli was scarce in untreated K-soil, while the disease in autoclaved K-soil was so severe as T-soil. However the disease suppressiveness of autoclaved K-soil recovered when it was maintained for several months in a greenhouse. The population of propagules in untreated K-soil inoculated with macroconidia, estimated by soil dilution plate method, decreased rapidly and became ca. 1/1000 of the original population after 65 days. By soil smear method and cellophane method, few of macroconidia germinated in K-soil, and their tip cells or very short germ-tubes abnormally swelled and some of them lost their cytoplasm within 48hr. Most of macroconidia inoculated in this soil finally lysed without chlamydospore production. The germination of inoculated chlamydospores was also inhibited at the laimo-sphere of detached bean hypocotyles in K-soil. These results suggest that Kitami soil is one of the suppressive soils in which the pathogen fails to establish.
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  • Masao GOTO, Yuji TADAUCHI, Norio OKABE
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 618-624
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Growth patterns of Xanthomonas citri and Erwinia herbicola were compared in mixed cultures as well as individual cultures in peptone-sucrose broth, intercellular fluid of citrus leaves and intact leaf tissues. At 30C, E. herbicola grew rapidly inhibiting growth of X. citri regardless of concentration of nutrients in peptone-sucrose broth. At 20C, however, both bacteria continued to grow for 24hr. In intercellular fluid sampled in July, E. herbicola was selectively depressed in contrast to the continuous growth of X. citri. This effect was not observed in the intercellular fluids sampled in October and February. When X. citri was injected into mesophyll of citrus leaves, nutrient substances were released from host cells into intercellular spaces 6 to 9hr after inoculation. In mixed inoculation, growth of E. herbicola occurred only when the population of X. citri reached 107CFU/cm2.
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  • Masao GOTO, Ikuko TAKEMURA, Katsuji YAMANAKA
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 625-634
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Conductivity of intercellular fluid sharply increased in 24 to 48hr after susceptible Natsudaidai leaves were inoculated with Xanthomonas citri. At the same time, amino acids were released into intercellular spaces increasing in concentration several times in 48hr compared with uninoculated leaves. The major amino acids in intercellular fluid from inoculated leaves were: proline, anserine, γ-amino-n-butyric acid, serine, alanine and aspartic acid. Carnosine and ethanolamine were detected as new amino acids in the infected tissues. Electrolyte leakage also occurred in leaves of Calamondin, a resistant cultivar, although the growth of X. citri was kept low during the period of observation. Strain V2 of Erwinia herbicola induced rapid leakage of electrolytes and extremely rapid movement of amino acids into intercellular spaces in Natsudaidai leaves. Strain F1 of the same bacterium, however, did not induce these reactions. The bacterial populations quickly declined when incompatible xanthomonads were inoculated into Natsudaidai leaves. There was considerable alteration in amino acid compositions of host cells inoculated with X. phaseoli but not in those of intercellular fluid, indicating that the host cell membrane did not suffer serious damage. The changes found in the leaf tissues inoculated with X. citri seemed to be situated between these two.
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  • Meisaku KOIZUMI
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 635-644
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Electron microscopic observations of leaf tissues of susceptible Citrus natsudaidai injected with Xanthomonas citri suspension were made. The cell wall swelled followed by a separation between wall surface and cell wall, 24-48hr after inoculation incubated at 20C. Bacteria existing between cell wall and wall surface multiplied with a marked decomposition of outer layer of the cell wall and with a formation of fibrils. Plasmalemma separated from wall-inner surface and then degenerated 96hr after inoculation, followed by a marked multiplication of bacteria around these cells. The tonoplast and other cellular organelles disintegrated. Afterward, cell wall was broken and bacteria invaded and multiplied intracellularly. In the similar tissues of resistant C. junos, fibrillar materials coagulated in intercellular spaces and ensheathed bacteria 96hr after inoculation. Plasmalemma separated from the inner cell wall surface. The cytoplasm became electron-dense when the Plasmalemma degenerated. This seemed to be hypersensitive reaction. Around these cells no bacteria multiplied. In diseased tissues of 50-day-old lesions on the resistant host and moderately resistant C. hassaku, intercellular spaces were plugged with electron-dense materials which had immobilized shrunken, inactive bacteria. In contrast, the electron-lucent intercellular spaces in the susceptible diseased tissues contained intact bacteria. The facts suggest that fibrillar coagulation with bacteria encapsulation is the most important resistant reaction.
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  • Ryutaro SAKAI, Koushi NISHIYAMA, Akitami ICHIHARA, Kunio SHIRAISHI, Sa ...
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 645-653
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Coronatine is an extracellular toxin produced by Pseudomonas coronafaciens var. atropurpurea (Reddy and Godkin) Stapp, the incitant of the chocolate spot disease on Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Coronatine induced the necrosis with chlorotic halo symptoms of the disease in host leaves as well as in non-hosts and thus is nonspecific. Coronatine, at low concentration of 0.05mM to 0.5mM, also induced marked hypertrophy only on potato tuber tissues. When a potato tuber cylinder was incubated with coronatine before the extensibility measurment, the plasticity was greater than that of the control, suggesting that coronatine is required to increase the plasticity of the cell wall for cell expansion. Coronatine-induced water uptake was quantitatively inhibited by tree entirely different type of inhibitors, suggesting that water uptake by potato tuber tissue in the presence of coronatine externally added is linked to the general aerobic metabolism and corresponds closely to outgrowth of potato tuber tissue. Coronatine-induced tissue deformability of potato cylinder was reduced by treatment with actinomycin D and cycloheximide. These results suggest that RNA and protein syntheses seem to be essential prior to cell expansion and tissue deformation. It can be therefore concluded that coronatine may control the syntheses of enzymes which loosen the cell wall before expansion of the cell by turgor pressure. The rapid increase in cell expansion of potato tissue treated with coronatine was accompanied by disapperance of starch grains in the cell. We conclude from the experiments described above that the effect of coronatine on cell enlargement depends on both increases in the plasticity of the cell wall and in osmotic pressure in the cell sap.
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  • Masamichi NISHIGUCHI, Nobuyuki OSHIMA
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 654-659
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Some properties of an attenuated tomato strain (L11A) of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were compared with the parent virulent strain (L). Dilution end point of L11A was 10-7-10-8, while L was still infective at 10-8. L11A lost its infectivity after heat treatment at 90C for ten min while L did not. The infectivity of L11A was lost more rapidly than that of L at 70C. The shape of particles and the length distribution pattern of L11A after purification were much the same as those of L. The sap of tomato leaves infected with L11A retained about 50% of the original infectivity after a weekstorage at 25C and less than 10% after a year-storage, whereas that of leaves infected with L retained 80 and 50% of infectivity after respective periods. L11A was suspended at 3.3mg/ml either in 0.01M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) or in the same buffer containing 2% sucrose, then lyophilized and the resultant virus powder was stored at 22-25C. The samples without sucrose completely lost their infectivities after 27 months storage, whereas the samples with sucrose were highly infectious still at the same stage of storage. To examine whether the lyophilization with sucrose affected virulence, the sample stored for 27 months was inoculated to Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc, and the produced lesions were isolated singly. The saps from these lesions were tested separately on tomato seedlings for their virulence. Only one lesion out of 50 produced a chlorotic patch on a leaflet of tomato. All other lesions caused no symptom. The effect of temperature on the multiplication of L11A and L in tomato leaf discs was compared. The optimal temperature for L11A was 25-28C, while that for L was 28-30C. At 35C, L multiplied considerably but L11A did not. The ratio of the amount of L11A to that of L decreased consistently as the temperature was raised up to 35C.
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  • Katsuhiko ANDO, Shoji SATO, Keizo KATSUYA
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 660-667
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Vegetative growth of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici race 45 was obtained by placing aseptic wheat leaves bearing uredinia on media. Vegetative mycelium emerged from periphery of the uredinium or through the central slit from the mycelial mass formed in the respiratory cavity of stomata of the wheat leaves, not from the germtubes of urediniospores. Two kinds of colony types were observed: One which cease the vegetative growth within 2 months of incubation, and another which can be subcultured continuously. The former consists of masses of bold mycelia and is able to produce spores. The latter consists of narrow hyphae and does not produce spores. When epidermis-stripped aseptic wheat segments were placed on colonies, a uredinium was produced on the side of the leaf segment opposite to the colony 1 month after the inoculation.
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  • Koushi NISHIYAMA, Toshihiko KUSABA, Kouki OHTA, Kiyonobu NAHATA, Akino ...
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 668-674
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    A new bacterial disease of tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.), bacterial black rot, was found in Toyama prefecture during August 1973. The disease occurs on post-harvest tulip bulbs during July to September, particularly in early and middle August. The affected bulb usually shows brownish irregular spots on an outside scale, and sometimes shows symptoms on the second and third inner scales without any symptoms on an outside scale. Severely infected bulbs are dried up into dark brown color.
    Fourteen bacterial isolates obtained from affected scales were identical with each other in their bacteriological characteristics and pathogenicity on tulip bulbs. Those isolates coincided in their bacteriological characteristics with the descriptions of P. andropogonis and P. woodsii and with the characteristics of two nomenspecies used as the check isolates in this experiment. The isolates from tulip and the two check isolates were pathogenic to all the three kinds of their original host plants, tulip, sorgo and carnation, and the symptoms on those plants were quite similar to each other.
    As P. andropogonis and P. woodsii were designated on the same date, the authors chose P. andropogonis as the legitimate name in accordance with the rule 42 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria 1975. The pathogen of bacterial black rot of tulip is thus identified as Pseudomonas andropogonis (Smith 1911) Stapp 1928.
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  • Hitoshi KUNOH, Osamu ITOH, Mitsuru KOHNO, Hiroshi ISHIZAKI
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 675-682
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Conidia of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei and E. graminis f. sp. tritici produce primary germ tubes that breach epidermal walls of host plants several hours before appressoria are formed. The present study, using micromanipulation in the scanning electron microscope, examines whether or not some other Erysiphe species, E. pisi, E. cichoracearum and E. polygoni also develop primary germ tubes or similar structures. For comparison, E. graminis f. sp. hordei and E. graminis f. sp. agropyri were also examined. Conidia of E. cichoracearum produced only a single germ tube during the initial 16hr after inoculation, and only a few per cent of E. pisi and E. polygoni conidia had more than one tube. Furthermore, penetration pores were only observed below appressorial tubes of these species. By contrast, conidia of E. graminis f. sp. hordei and E. graminis f. sp. agropyri produced both short primary germ tubes which breached epidermal walls of host plants and appressoria that penetrated and developed haustoria. From these results and the literature, we conclude that primary germ tubes may be unique to and thus represent a characteristic feature of E. graminis development.
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  • Koushi NISHIYAMA, Tsutomu FUKUNISHI, Takashige TERADA, Akinori EZUKA
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 683-688
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    A bacterial disease of carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.) new to Japan was found in Tokushima prefecture during January 1978. Carrots are cultivated there in the plastic-film tunnels for their rapid growth. The disease starts during middle of January and severe infection occurs during February and March. It comes to an end during early in April after the film is removed. The disease was observed on leaves and petioles of carrots and the symptoms were very similar to those of leaf blight produced by Alternaria dauci. Disease severity was widely different with cultivars under natural infection: Kôki 200 was more severely attacked than Chanteney. Fifteen bacterial isolates obtained from affected leaflets proved to be pathogenic to carrot by artificial spray inoculation, producing similar symptoms to those produced naturally. The isolates were identical with each other in their bacteriological characteristics and coincided with the descriptions of Xanthomonas carotae and X. campestris and with the characteristics of check isolates of the latter species. The reciprocal inoculation experiments revealed that the check isolates of X. campestris did not attack carrots but Brassica spp., while the present isolates did not attack Brassica spp. On the basis of bacteriological characteristics and pathogenicity, the present isolates were identified as Xanthomonas carotae (Kendrick 1934) Dowson 1939. According to the proposal of Young et al., the bacterium is called X. campestris pv. carotae (Kendrick 1934) Dye 1978.
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  • Masao GOTO, Yoshihiko YAGUCHI
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 689-694
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The relationship between disease severity and leaf abscission was analysed with leaves of Natsudaidai (Citrus Natsudaidai) infected by Xanthomonas citri. When young shoots were inoculated by spray method under field conditions, defoliation occurred on more than 80% of leaves when lesions covered as much as 10% of leaf surface area. In leaves with the lesions more than 20% of the leaf surface area, 100% defoliation occurred. These figures corresponded approximately to one large lesion (4.5mm in average diameter) per cm2 leaf or 15 to 20 lesions per mature leaf. Most of the leaves with the lesions covering less than 5% of the total leaf surface area did not fall throughout the season. When the leaf infiltration method was applied to inocu-late leaves of young seedlings in greenhouse, leaf abscission was directly related to the leaf surface area covered with lesions. The most of defoliated leaves belonged to those with about 20% leaf surface area covered with lesions. This was significantly larger than that in spray inoculation in field. The rate of absission increased when the site of inouclation was set in lower half of the leaf, particularly close to the joint of leaf blade to leaf stipule.
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  • Tomio YAMAGUCHI, Ikuo ITO
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 695-698
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Sporulation potentials of rice blast lesions formed on 22 rice cultivars differing in their degrees of field resistance to blast were compared by counting the number of spores produced per unit area in unit time, 10 days, after inoculation. Two isolates of blast fungus which are pathogenic to all the cultivars were used. Inoculation was made to the topmost leaves of the main stem and the primary tiller on the spots prepared by press-injuring with a specially designed punch. Lesion areas of resistant (R) cultivars were always larger than those on susceptible (S) ones at 10-leaf stage, and the difference in the sporulation potentials of lesions among the cultivars became distinct 10 days after inoculation. Sporulations of larger lesions were more abundant than those of smaller ones. Furthermore, sporulation potentials per 30mm2 of lesion areas conspicuously differed among the cultivars, i.e., lower in R cultivars, Todorokiwase and Yoneshiro, than in S cultivars, Kusabue and Aichi-asahi. Exceptionally, the potential was high on a R cultivar, Upland rice Norin 12, despite of its smaller lesion area. Differece in the sporulation potential was not enough clear at 5-leaf stage, became fairly distinct at 6-leaf stage, and prominent at 8-leaf stage.
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  • Ikuo ITO, Tomio YAMAGUCHI
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 699-704
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Seven isolates of Pyricularia oryzae Cav. were tested for their dependency of sporulation on substrates or near UV irradiation. All the isolates exhibited poor sporulation on PDA medium in the darkness. Even in the darkness, 2 out of the 7 isolates produced conidia abundantly on autoclaved rice leaf pieces and also on rice leaf powder medium. Another 5 isolates responded to the near UV irradiation with the sporulation 10 to 40 times as much as that in the darkness. Therefore, there exist two types of sporulating ability in P. oryzae, one mainly depends on a substrate and the other on near UV light. The presence of leaf powder of rice and Italian ryegrass stimulated the sporulation of all isolates, whereas that of bean, raddish and potato stimulated only very slightly and the degree of stimulation differed according to the isolates tested. The water or ethanol extract from rice leaf tissues induced sporulation of blast fungus and the activity of both extracts is not inactivated by autoclaving. The active substances in the hot water extract are adsorbed by ion exchanger of anion, but not of cation. The extract which is not adsorbed by the cation exchanger stimulated sporulation at concentrations higher than 10μg/ml.
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  • Susumu SAKAI, Kohei TOMIYAMA, Noriyuki DOKE
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 705-711
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Rishitin synthesis was investigated in tissue by applying acetate-2-14C to tissue slices of various parts of potato cv. Rishiri and Yukijiro. Radioactivity of rishitin extracted from the tissue was ascertained by examining changes of radioactivities of bis (3, 5-dinitrobenzoate) of extracted rishitin on repeated recrystallization. The rishitin synthetic pathway showed significant operation in potato tuber disks within 30min after slicing, but little activity within 10min. With the slices of buds sprouted from tubers of cv. Rishiri and Yukijiro and those of seedlings of Rishiri, the synthetic pathway was shown to operate sufficiently within 10min after slicing. In the stem tissue 4cm from the top of the seedling, the synthetic pathway of rishitin was also found to operate within 10min after slicing, but synthetic activity was lower than in the bud tissue. These findings suggested that the rishitin synthetic pathway operates at the isotope level in an intact young potato tissue which is metabolically active, and is also induced rapidly in tuber tissue by wounding.
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  • Narinobu INOUYE, Takanori MAEDA, Koji MITSUHATA
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 712-720
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Yellowing disease of lily (Lilium longiflorum) was first found in June, 1975, in Kushu district in Japan. The causal virus was transmitted by inoculation with sap to 33 species in 11 plant families including lily. Chenopodium quinoa was characterized by mosaic and stunt and hence is useful as an indicator host. The virus is very flexuous filamentous particles of 650×12nm in phosphotungstate, with obvious crossbanding of pitch 3.8nm. Attempts to transmit the virus by aphid (Myzus persicae) failed, but the virus was transmitted through seeds of lily and C. quinoa. When the virus was inoculated to the young seedlings of C. quinoa, the percentage of seed-borne infection was observed up to 60.0%. Leaf extracts lost infectivity after 4-8 days at 22C, 10min at 65-70C and after dilution of 10-4-10-5. In thin sections of the virusinfected leaves of C. quinoa, the particles were observed only in phloem cells. The virus was serologically closely related to citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV) which was found to infect lilies symptomlessly. From the results mentioned above, the causal virus was identified as CTLV.
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  • Sakari KATO
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 721-726
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The subcellular localization of fatty acid hydroperoxide cleavage enzyme in cowpea and cucumber leaves and the changes of its activity by CMV-infection were studied. Most of the enzyme activities in the leaf tissue were mainly located in plasma membrane. Little activity was associated with endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and microbody. The enzyme activity and malonaldehyde content in cowpea, local lesion host of CMV, increased rapidly during 12hr after inoculation and then decreased gradually as lesion appeared. However, the enzyme activity and malonaldehyde content did not change significantly in cucumber over a period of 10 days after inoculation.
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  • Yong Woo LEE, Shozo YAMAZAKI, Takeshi OSAKI, Tadao INOUYE
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 727-734
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Tow sap-transmissible elongated viruses from garlic plants were described and named garlic latent virus (GLV) and garlic mosaic virus (GMV) based on the symptoms produced in infected garlic plants. These names were given anew to avoid the existing and unresolved confusions on the nomenclature of garlic viruses. Garlic plants inoculated with GLV produced no visible symptoms, whereas infected broad beans produced systemic necrotic spots. Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa, and Tetragonia expansa infected with GLV produced local necrotic and chlorotic lesions, respectively. Particles of GLV were flexuous rods, 650-700nm long, and existed either randomly or as small aggregates in the cytoplasm of the infected plant cells. GLV has a thermal inactivation point between 55 and 60C, dilution end point of 10-4-10-5 and longevity in vitro of 2-4 days. No serological relationships were found between GLV and GMV, carnation latent virus or chrysanthemum virus B. Symptoms due to the infection of GMV was mosaic in garlic plants, and local necrotic lesions in Gomphrena globosa, whereas latent infection was detected in the inoculated leaves of C. amaranticoler, C. quinoa and T. expansa. Particles of GMV were flexuous rods about 750nm long. Pinwheel-type cytoplasmic inclusions were found in the infected garlic plant cells. Mixed infection of GLV and GMV were found in most of the garlic plants showing mosaic symptoms collected from various parts of Japan, although only GMV was detected in a few varieties.
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  • Toshihiro SENBOKU, Tyng-Guang CHOU, Eishiro SHIKATA
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 735-737
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Yoshio EHARA
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 738-740
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Mabito IWASAKI, Akira SHINKAI
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 741-744
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    In 1978, a virus-like desease of rice, which has been unknown in Japan, occurred in Fukuoka and Kagoshima Pref. The symptoms in rice cv. Taichung Native 1 showed stunting with yellowing, excessive tillering and an erect growth habit. The desease was transmitted by brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) in the persistent manner. The incubation period in insect was 8-17 (av. 12) days. The proportion of insect that transmitted the causal agent was about 32%. From the characteristics of symptoms and the mode of insect transmission, this disease was identified as the rice grassy stunt disease.
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  • Janina KRYWIENCZYK, Shozo TAKAI, Barbara A. MATHIESON
    1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 745-747
    Published: December 26, 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 750a
    Published: 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1979 Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 750b
    Published: 1979
    Released: February 19, 2009
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