Plants deal with a myriad of microbial attacks by employing a two-tiered innate immune system. The first tier is called pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), and the second tier is called effector-triggered immunity (ETI). PTI is triggered upon recognition of conserved microbial molecules known as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by plasmamembrane-localized pattern recognition receptors. Since pathogenic and nonpathogenic microbes often present common MAMPs, PTI could be activated by both types of microbes. Therefore, PTI should be tunable to alleviate fitness costs associated with unnecessary activation of immunity against nonpathogenic microbes and, at the same time, should be effective against pathogens that deploy virulence effectors to interfere with immune signaling components. Recent studies have shown that these properties of PTI are achieved via sophisticated networking of immune signaling components such as phytohormones and MAP kinases. However, pathogens exploit these regulatory interactions between immune signaling components to favor infection. Intriguing studies have recently demonstrated that plants can intercept pathogen exploitation of immune signaling networks during ETI, thereby reestablishing disease resistance. This review focuses on the structures and dynamics of immune signaling networks behind molecular interactions between plants and pathogens.
In a study of symptom development of internal rot of netted melon fruits inoculated with Pantoea ananatis group II strain SUPP1791, symptoms did not develop immediately, even when bacterial populations reached 106~7 cfu/g of fruit tissue. Symptoms in the placenta of the fruit were visible at 40 days post-inoculation, when the bacterial population was ca. 107 cfu/g for at least 10 days. Sugar content was significantly lower in symptomatic tissues than in the asymptomatic. SUPP1791 caused internal rot of fruits of several other cucurbit plants except for cantaloupe and cucumber.
For identifying the causal agent of bacterial rot of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs cultivated for a new cropping type for summer harvest in the Tohoku region, bacteria were isolated from symptomatic plants at different stages. Pseudomonas marginalis, Pantoea ananatis and Erwinia rhapontici were isolated from onion leaves cultivated in the region, and Burkholderia cepacia was mainly isolated from rotted bulbs at harvest or after. Pathogenicity tests suggested that the rot disease of onion bulbs during storage in the Tohoku region was caused by B. cepacia, which may invade plants before harvest and cause disease later.