Japanese Journal of Phytopathology
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
Volume 54 , Issue 1
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Yasuo HOMMA, Yutaka ARIMOTO
    1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 1-8
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Even if citrus fruits are severely affected by melanose, they do not rot. This is considered to be due to some pre-inhibitins or phytoalexins induced in their tissues. The effect of extracts from leaves, twigs, fruit peel and fruit vesicles of citrus plants (satsuma mandarin and natsu-daidai) on pycnospore germination, germ tube elongation and disease development was examined. Among them, the peel extract showed the greatest inhibitory effect on pycnospore germination and germ tube elongation, followed by the extracts from leaf, fruit vesicle and twig in that order. A similar examination was carried out to prove the presence of inhibitory substances in the vascular bundle system of the fruit. The extract from the tissues directly under the disk had the greatest inhibitory effect, followed by that from the stem button. The extract from the vascular bundle in the fruit also had an inhibitory effect. When the inhibitory effects of extracts from exocarps, mesocarps, endocarps and vesicles of natsudaidai fruit were compared with each other, the extracts from vesicle and exocarp had an inhibitory effect at a 100-time dilution, but those from others did not have at the same concentration. The inhibitory effect of vesicle extract against pycnospore germination and germ tube elongation decreased with the period of fruit storage after harvest. Extracts from fruit peel and vesicle inhibited melanose even if they were diluted 100-1, 000 times, and the 100-time dilution also effective in controlling black rot, gray mold, anthracnose, and phoma rot when the fruit was treated with the 100 times diluted extract before inoculation.
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  • Yoshikatsu FUJITA, Ryoichi IKEDA, Hozumi SUZUKI
    1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 9-14
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Resistance to purple seed stain in F2 and B1F1 plants derived from the cross of Oshimashirome with wild soybean were investigated. Resistance in wild soybeans seems to be controlled by two dominant genes having different degree of resistance. Even the F2 or B1F1 plants with only one of the two genes for resistance were more resistant than Hanayome that was one of the most resistant varieties. No or little significant correlations between resistance and some other characters such as plant height, 100-seed-weight, seed color, and hard-coatedness were detected in F2 and B1F1 populations. Therefore, it was considered that a highly resistant variety could be developed from an interspecific hybridization between soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (G. soja).
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  • Nobutaka SAMEJIMA, Takio ICHITANI
    1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 15-19
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Behaviors of Pythium butleri and P. zingiberum in and around the autoclaved cucumber stem segments buried in recolonized autoclaved soil were studied. Oospores of the former germinated around segments, and were more effective in colonization than those of the latter, but no oospore germination was found in P. zingiberum under the same environment. Hyphae of P. butleri were able to grow more rapidly than those of P. zingiberum through the soil. No clear differences in survival in the form of mycelium were found between two fungi. P. butleri produced more oospores around the segments than P. zingiberum. P. butleri survived longer period of time in the colonized segments than P. zingiberum.
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  • Mamoru SATO
    1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 20-24
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    A phytotoxin (coronatine)-producing ability of Pseudomonas syringae pv. atropurpurea NIAES 1309 is associated with 58 Mdal plasmid designated as pCOR1. A conjugative plasmid pBPW1:: Tn7 from P. syringae pv. tabaci BR2 was introduced into the strain NIAES 1309. When the strain was mated with avirulent strains derived from NIAES 1309 in Italian ryegrass, pBPW1:: Tn7 was transferred to the avirulent strain at a high frequency. Twenty strains out of 894 transconjugants contained the pCOR1 plasmid co-transferred with pBPW1:: Tn7. All of these strains produced coronatine and induced typical symptoms on Italian ryegrass. That is, in planta transfer of virulence genes between isolates of phytopathogenic pseudomonad was confirmed.
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  • Surang KARNJANARAT, Kenichi TSUCHIYA, Nobuaki MATSUYAMA, Satoshi WAKIM ...
    1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 25-31
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: April 03, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seventy-nine strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) isolated from various soft rot vegetables in Japan and Thailand were compared in serological properties by Ouch-terlony double diffusion method. Seven antisera produced against representative strains of different Ecc biovars (B, C and D) and one antiserum against E. c. subsp. atroseptica (Eca) were used. All antigens were heat-treated before use. All Ecc strains did not react with anti-Eca-serum and all Eca strains did not react with all of the anti-Ecc-sera. None of the strains of Ecc belonging to biovar DG (typical Ecc strains) gave specific precipitin band with antisera to strains belonging to biovar B and C (intermediate strains) which had some properties of Eca. With antisera to the typical Ecc strain (N7129 of biovar D), none of the intermediate strains gave specific precipitin band. These results indicated that the intermediate strains could be serologically distinguished from both typical Ecc and Eca.
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  • Kazunori TSUNO, Satoshi WAKIMOTO
    1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 32-44
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ultrastructural changes in the early stages of interaction between rice leaf parenchymatous tissue and infiltrated bacteria such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzicola, X. c. pv. oryzae, X. c. pv. citri. X. c. pv. campestris and Pseudomonas fluorescens were investigated. Most of the cells of all bacteria tested attached tightly on the surface of rice cells by 5 hr after infiltration. The bacteria pathogenic to rice leaves, X. c. pv. oryzicola and X. c. pv. oryzae, induced fluid sphere (FS) formation around their bodies in the intercellular spaces associating with distortion of rice plasmalemma adjacent to the bacterial cells by 10 hr after infiltration. FS was enlarged to fill up rice intercellular spaces with bacterial multiplication by 2 days after infiltration. It was conceivable that FS was composed of the liquid leaked from rice cells due to bacterial attack against rice cell wall and membrane systems. FS was also induced by the bacteria non-pathogenic to rice leaves, X. c. pv. citri and X. c. pv. campestris, but its frequency and extension were less than those in the case of the former. Rice cells adjacent to these bacteria accumulated electron dense materials (EDM-p) at periplasmic spaces and formed vesicles from membrane systems near bacterial cells. The bacteria increased their population slightly, but some of them were abnormal in shape. The cells of P. fluorescens did not induce FS. Some bacterial cells were surrounded by loose network fibrils on the rice cells in which EDM-p was accumulated at periplasmic space by 1-2 days after infiltration. It was suggested that FS formation was a phenomenon of compatible interaction and EDM-p accumulation was that of incompatible interaction. The rapidity and degree of FS formation and EDM-p accumulation were different depending upon compatibility between rice leaf parenchymatous cells and infiltrated bacteria.
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  • Naotaka FURUICHI, Joichi SUZUKI
    1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 45-51
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Polyclonal antibodies from rabbit immunized with water soluble glucan (WSG), the hypersensitivity-suppressor of Phytophthora infestans, were used to develop the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA) to detect WSG in germination fluid (GF) of the fungus. As little as 4.3 picomoles of WSG per assay well could be detected by this method. The ELISA test with anti-WSG-rabbit-antibodies showed that GF derived from race 0 and race I and 1, 2, 3, 4 of P. infestans, avirulent or virulent to cultivar Yukijiro (R1-gene), respectively, contained the same WSG, but their contents were different. Race 1, 2, 3, 4 contained much more WSG in GF than in those of race 1 and race 0. The WSG was increasingly released into the GF up to 5 hr after germination of the fungal cystospores. An apparent molecular weight of the purified WSG from race 1, 2, 3, 4 was shown to be 4700 dalton by using high performance liquid chromatography. The WSG peak of race 1, 2, 3, 4 and race 0 extracts showed almost the same degree of suppressor activity with regard to hypersensitive reaction of host cells.
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  • Shigeo NAITO, Shunichi MAKINO, Toshiya SUGIMOTO
    1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 52-59
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Observations of sugarbeet flelds in Sapporo in 1985 revealed that larvae of Pnyxia scabiei (Hopkins) (Diptera, Sciaridae) were often feeding on sclerotia and hyphae of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-2-2, the causal organism of the sugarbeet root rot. Results of laboratory feeding tests showed that P. scabiei aggregated on and around sclerotia, mycelia of R. solani grown on autoclaved barley grains and pieces of diseased sugarbeet roots, but not on sterile barley grains or healthy roots. Larvae actively fed on sclerotia; 15 sclerotia were almost completely eaten up by 30 larvae within 24 hr in 6-cm diameter petri dishes. Optimum temperature for feeding on sclerotia was 25 C. Among 6 anastomosis groups of R. solani, sclerotia destruction were severe in AG-2-2, AG-3 and AG-5, but less in AG-1 (culture type IA and IB), AG-2-1 and AG-4. Populations of larvae in sugarbeet fields increased rapidly as root rot severity increased. Occasionally up to 5, 000 larvae per dead root were counted. They were found mostly on lesions or in the soil within a distance of 2-cm from the root surface. When sclerotia of R. solani AG-2-2 were buried in soil around dead or healthy roots of sugarbeet for 3 weeks in autumn, using small plastic containers with 10-or 250-μm mesh, sclerotial destruction occurred only in 250-μm containers around the dead roots, and larvae of P. scabiei were often inside these containers. These results suggest that P. scabiei decreases sclerotial density of R. solani in soil and thereby reduces Rhizoctonia root rot incidence of sugarbeets.
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  • Makoto KAKISHIMA, Shoji SATO
    1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 60-63
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Masao GOTO
    1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 64-67
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • 1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 68-80
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • 1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 81-93
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • 1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 94-103
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • 1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 103-110
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • 1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 111-118
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1988 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 119-130
    Published: January 25, 1988
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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