Japanese Journal of Phytopathology
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
Volume 59 , Issue 6
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 617-618
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Hidetoshi UEKUSA, Tohru TERAOKA, Daijirou HOSOKAWA, Minoru WATANABE
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 619-625
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cucumber cotyledons, in which tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) had been localized without causing necrotic lesions, were challenge-inoculated with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) or cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the opposite side of the TMV-inoculated leaf surface. Under fluorescent antibody staining of the leaf section, the challenge viruses were not observed within the TMV-infected areas while the other area was fully infected. Radioisotope-labelled substances (amino acids, uridine or glucose) incorporated to cotyledons through hypocotyls did not distribute to these TMV-localized areas. Cell-to-cell movement of microinjected fluorescent tracer was strongly inhibited in TMV-infected area as compared with uninfected area. Transport of photosynthetic products out of TMV-infected areas was also inhibited, while the cells in these areas retained the same CO2-assimilatory activity (measured by 14C-CO2) as uninfected areas. These results suggest that some mechanisms inhibiting cell-to-cell movement of virus and substances are induced in TMV-infected area, and which may be involved in localization of TMV in cucumber cotyledons.
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  • Shinya TSUDA, Kaoru HANADA, Yuzo MINOBE, Mitsuro KAMEYA-IWAKI, Keiichi ...
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 626-634
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Five isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), designated N, M, P, W and K, collected from different prefectures in Japan, were characterized and compared on their properties of nucleocapsid (N) protein and S RNA. Nucleocapsid of each isolate was purified by ultracentrifugation followed by metrizamide isopycnic density-gradient. Molecular weights of N proteins were 30 K in case of N, M and P isolates, while those of W and K isolates were 32 K. Moreover, difference of chromatograms between 30 K and 32 K N proteins digested by lysyl endpeptidase was observed. By Western blot analysis, specific antibody to N protein of N isolate reacted to N protein of N, M and P isolates, whereas specific antibody to that of W isolate could detect only those of W and K isolates without non-specific reactions. When S RNA was compared by glyoxalated agarose gel electrophoresis, molecular weights of S RNAs of N, M and P isolates were 1.02×106, while those of W and K isolates were 1.21×106. In Northern blot hybridization analysis using S RNA from either N or W isolate as probe, S RNA from N isolate tightly hybridized with S RNAs of N, M and P isolates, and S RNA from W isolate hybridized only with those of W and K isolates. Based on the results obtained, TSWV isolates which occurred in Japan were grouped into two strains. The one was designated as ordinary strain (TSWV-O; N, M and P isolates) and the other was watermelon strain (TSWV-W; W and K isolates).
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  • Hironori MASUI, Mioko NAKAYAMA, Masaru OHTURU
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 635-641
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Two enzymes, Lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid hydroperoxide converting enzyme (LHCE), which are responsible for the production of antifungal lipid peroxides, were detected in taro tubers infected by Ceratocystis fimbriata. The infected taro tubers contained two LOX isozymes (LOX-1, LOX-2). The main isozyme of LOX was LOX-2 that showed optimal activity at pH 5.5. The enzyme (LOX-2) showed similar magnitude of activity toward linoleic acid (100%) and linolenic acid (77%), but did not show any activity toward methyl linoleate (0%). It changed linoleic acid into 9-(9-LOOH) and 13-linoleate hydroperoxides (13-LOOH) in the ratio of 47:53. The infected taro tubers contained two isozymes of LHCE (LHCE-1, LHCE-2) with similar substrate specificity. When 9- or 13-LOOH of linoleic acid was used as the substrate of LHCE, main product was 9-or 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (LOH), respectively. 9, 12, 13-trihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (9, 12, 13-LOH) was produced as a minor product from 9-LOOH by LHCE. All of 9-and 13-LOOH, 9-and 13-LOH, and 9, 12, 13-LOH showed the similar toxicity toward both sweet potato and taro strains of C. fimbriata. On the other hand, the crude enzyme preparation (containing both LOX and LHCE) from the infected taro tubers converted linolenic acid into the peroxides compound(s), which inhibited the growth of sweet potato strain more severely than that of taro strain.
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  • Toru IWANAMI, Meisaku KOIZUMI, Hiroyuki IEKI
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 642-650
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Serological property and electrophoretic mobility of coat protein as well as symptoms on citrus and herbaceous plants were compared on two isolates (S-58, MIE-88) of satsuma dwarf virus (SDV) and four of related viruses (Ci-968, LB-1, Az-1, NI-1), using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and electro-blot immunoassay. Symptoms on citrus and herbaceous plants showed that S-58 and MIE-88 are SDV, Ci-968 is citrus mosaic virus (CiMV), NI-1 is navel orange infectious mottling virus (NIMV), while LB-1 and Az-1 are unreported viruses. In DAS-ELISA, S-58 and MIE-88 reacted strongly to anti-S-58 polyclonal antibody (S-PA), Ci-968 and LB-1 strongly to anti-Ci-968 antibody (Ci-PA) while Az-1 and NI-1 reacted to neither of them. SDS-PAGE revealed that S-58 and MIE-88 had two major coat proteins of about 42, 000 and 22, 000 daltons (slow migrating band, SB and fast migrating band, FB), Ci-968, LB-1 and Az-1 had ones of about 42, 000 and 23, 000 daltons, and NI-1 had ones of about 42, 000 and 22, 500 daltons. In electro-blot immunoassay, S-PA reacted strongly to SB of S-58 and MIE-88, Ci-PA reacted strongly to SB of Ci-968, LB-1 and Az-1, and relatively weakly to SB of S-58 and MIE-88, while neither of S-PA and Ci-PA reacted to SB of NI-1. FB of S-58 and MIE-88 reacted very weakly to S-PA and Ci-PA. FB of Ci-968, LB-1, Az-1 and NI-1 reacted to neither of S-PA and Ci-PA. These results show that the six isolates can be classified as follows; SDV group (S-58 and MIE-88), CiMV group (Ci-968, LB-1 and Az-1) and NIMV group (NI-1). However, it was considered that more data should be accumulated to define these groups as distinct viruses or strains of SDV.
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  • Yoshiaki KANNO, Nobuyuki YOSHIKAWA, Tsuyoshi TAKAHASHI
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 651-658
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper reports some properties of hop latent virus (HLV) and apple mosaic virus (ApMV) isolated from hop plants and the distributions of the viruses in hop gardens in Japan. HLV isolated in this study was 650 nm in length and 13 nm in width and had a single coat protein species with Mr 34, 700 daltons (Da) and a single nucleic acid species with Mr 2.98×106 Da. In immunosorbent electron microscopy, the virus was trapped and decorated with antiserum against HLV from England, but not with antisera against hop mosaic virus or American hop latent virus. The spherical virus isolated in this study formed precipitation lines with antisera against ApMVs, but not with antisera against prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Humulus japonicus virus in double diffusion tests and was identified as ApMV. Purified ApMV contained isometric particles of 22 and 24 nm in diameter and some quasi-isometric particles of 24×26-28 nm, and comprised a single coat protein species with Mr 27, 500 Da and four nucleic acid species with Mr 1.39, 1.11, 0.72 and 0.34×106 Da. Distributions of HLV and ApMV in commercial hop plants were investigated by DIBA and ELISA, respectively. HLV was detected in the hops collected from all of 21 hop gardens located in 5 prefectures and the incidence of infection was 75.2% (158/210). ApMV was detected in 37.2% (67/180) of hop plants in 14 out of 18 hop gardens.
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  • Toshihiro YAMADA, Shin-ichiro ITO
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 659-665
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was inoculated into the branches of wilt-resistant Pinus taeda and P. strobus, and wilt-susceptible P. thunbergii. The histology of inoculated pine branches was investigated. Nematode numbers increased in whole inoculated branches of P. thunbergii. Nematode numbers decreased in those of resistant species, except in proximity to the inoculation site of P. taeda. Histological changes were delayed in the cortex and phloem tissue and cambium of P. thunbergii inoculated branches. In resistant species, necrosis and destruction of cortex and phloem tissue and cambium (P. taeda) or occlusion of cortical resin canal (P. strobus) occurred near the inoculation site rapidly after nematode inoculation. Wound periderm was formed within 3 weeks and 5 weeks after inoculation in P. taeda and P. strobus, respectively. Wound periderm formation was observed only around the cortical resin canals in P. thunbergii. Necrosis of xylem parenchyma was conspicuous in P. thunbergii, but not in resistant species. These results suggest that responses of resistant species, wound periderm formation and occlusion of cortical resin canal, trapped the nematode within damaged tissue. It is also suggested that insensitivity of xylem parenchyma to nematode infection acts as a defensive factor.
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  • Toshihiro YAMADA, Shin-ichiro ITO
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 666-672
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was inoculated into the branch of wilt-resistant Pines taeda and P. strobus, and susceptible P. thunbergii. Ethanol-extractives from the inoculated branches were investigated for the presence of unique resistance chemicals. Accumulation of antifungal substances were observed both in the cortex/phloem and xylem of P. strobes one week after inoculation. Their activity was maintained during the experiment. Pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethylether, pinobanksin and pinocembrin were identified among the inhibitory substances extracted from the P. strobes xylem. These substances are thought to immobilize B. xylophilus. Only slight inhibitory activity to the fungus but not to the nematode was detectable in P. taeda and P. thunbergii 5 weeks after inoculation. This suggests that ethanol-soluble inhibitory substances are produced in the resistance responses of inoculated branches of P. strobes against B. xylophilus infection, but not of P. taeda.
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  • Motoko SETOYAMA, Junko SAKAI, Yasuko YOSHIDA, Daijiro HOSOKAWA
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 673-677
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Masao GOTO
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 678-680
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Yoshiyuki KADOWAKI, Jun ISOTA
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 681-687
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Several sclerotial fungi cause a group of sclerotial diseases in rice, commonly called “pseudo-sheath blight”. The seasonal changes in populations and distributions of pseudo-sheath blight in paddy fields were surveyed by a trap method using mature buckwheat stem pieces as bait material. Several sclerotial fungi were isolated both from the early planted and the normally planted paddy fields. Sclerotium oryzae-sativae, S. jumigatum and S. hydrophilum were detected regularly from the transplanting season in early May to harvest season in early September. On the other hand, isolation frequencies of R. oryzae and R. solani AG 2-2 increased at the later stage of rice growth season. The frequencies of S. hydrophilurn and R. solani AG 2-2 increased under flooding and well-drained conditions, respectively. Furthermore, when the field was well-drained, each sclerotial fungus was detected from constant locations in the paddy field. These results suggest that several sclerotial fungi causing the pseudo-sheath blight disease are constantly present in paddy field throughout the whole rice cultivation season.
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  • Yoshiyuki KADOWAKI, Jun ISOTA
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 688-693
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The time and location of isolation of the sclerotial fungi causing a group of sclerotial diseases called “pseudo-sheath blight of rice plant” was surveyed. Rhizoctonia oryzae, Sclerotium oryzae-sativae and S. fumigatum were isolated from rice seedlings growing in nursery boxes. R. oryzae, R. solani AG 2-2, S. orvzae-sativae, S. fumigatum and S. hydrophilum were also isolated from the rice seedlings which had been left for complementary planting in paddy fields. The isolation frequencies of S. hydrophilum, S. fumigatum and S. oryzae-sativae were higher than those of other sclerotial fungi. These fungi were isolated from dead or weakened leaves of lower plant parts immediately after transplanting. The isolation frequencies of R. oryzae and R. solani AG 2-2 increased from the tillering or heading stage onwards. These results suggest that the rice seedlings were immediately infected with the sclerotial fungi at an early stage after transplanting, with the fungi growing predominantly on lower leaves.
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  • Setsuo SERIZAWA, Takeshi ICHIKAWA
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 694-701
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Optimum temperature for growth of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and for developments of bacterial canker on new canes of kiwifruit were examined with growth chamber. Three years old potted vines of “Hayward” were used. Two to eight tender canes per plant were punctured with a sterile needle. Pieces of absorbent cotton dipped in bacterial suspensions containing 107 CFU/ml were applied to the wounded sites. The plants were kept at constant day-night temperatures of 15-10°C, 18-13°C, 23-18°C and 28-23°C after inoculation. At 15-10°C and 18-13°C, exudation of bacterial ooze began in a few days after inoculation. Oozing were also observed in the early stage at 23-18°C. However, the localization was restricted to the inoculation sites and began to collapse ca. 20 days after inoculation. Oozing scarcely occurred at 28-23°C, and wound-healing tissue were produced as time passed. The bacterial population in the affected tissue 45 days after inoculation decreased remarkably at 23-18°C and at 28-23°C compared with those at 15-10°C and at 18-13°C. When the test plants were kept at constant temperatures of 10, 15, 20 and 25°C, oozing occurred earlier at 15 and 20°C than at 10°C. However, recovery of the disease was observed at 20°C as time passed. On the other hand, the disease developed severely at 10 and 15°C. Exudation of bacterial ooze did not occur at 25°C, and wound-healing tissue began to appear 20 days after treatment. Such a relation between temperature and development of the disease was also observed on the leaves inoculated by spraying a bacterial suspension. These results suggested that the optimum temperature for growth of the bacterium on new canes was in the range from 10 to 20°C. However, growth of the bacterium was suppressed gradually as the temperature rose probably because of the increase of resistance of new canes. Resistance was promoted remarkably as the temperature rose than 20°C. The most optimum temperature for development of the disease on new canes of kiwifruit was concluded to be in the range from 10 to 18°C.
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  • Akifumi MIZUNO, Takeo NAKANISHI, Koushi NISHIYAMA
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 702-708
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The cultivative properties of yacon strawberry for producing the fructooligosaccaride have been studied in Shikoku National Agricultural Experiment Station. At the beginning of June in 1992, wilted plants were found in the field. The vascular bundles of the plants were dameged whose color turned to brown. The disease incidence was increased rapidly in the first ten days of July. However, the development of the symptoms and the increase of the disease incidence halted in mid-summer. Small amount of bacterial exudation was found in the lesions. Bacterial isolates showing white color, round with entire margin, smooth surface, and dented center were isolated from the lesions. The bacteria caused the rotting of the potato tuber slice and had pathogenicities to the stems of yacon strawberry by the needle prick inoculation. They were Gram-negative, farmentative and methyl red test-negative. They reduced nitrate, produced indole, acetoin, lecithinase, and L-arginine decarboxylase. They produced acid from melibiose, raffinose and inulin and utilized L-tartrate and malonate. No isolates produced acid from maltose, trehalose or D-arabinose. They grew under 37°C, but did not under 38°C. On the basis of pathogenicity test and bacteriological characteristics, these isolates were identified as Erwinia chrysanthemi. According to the subdivision of E. chrysanthemi proposed by R. S. Dickey, they were classified in subdivision V. Bacterial wilt of yacon strawberry was proposed as the name of the disease.
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  • Hirotaka DATE, Hideo NASU, Motomu HATAMOTO
    1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 709-713
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The thermal death range of Pseudomonas solanacearum was examined under several conditions. The bacterium strains belonging to biovars II and III were more tolerant than those belonging to biovars I and IV at 40, 43, and 45°C in sterilized water. All strains of the bacterium was killed at 43°C for a day regardless belonging biovars. The bacterium was able to survive in the diseased plant residues and in soil at 43°C for 2 days and at 40°C for 5 days.
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  • 1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 714-722
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 723-736
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 737-746
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 746-757
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 758-765
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1993 Volume 59 Issue 6 Pages 766-774
    Published: December 25, 1993
    Released: February 19, 2009
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