Japanese Journal of Phytopathology
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
Volume 35 , Issue 3
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Daiki MURAYAMA
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 153-155
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Tadao INOUYE
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 156-158
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Masayuki SAKAMOTO
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 159
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Yasuji ASADA, Isao MATSUMOTO
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 160-167
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: April 03, 2009
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    A lignin-like substance (LS) has been found in roots of Japanese radish infected by Peronospora parasitica. From infrared and ultraviolet absorption spectra, methoxyl content, and paper chromatograms of the degradation products, it was confirmed that LS from infected roots is different from wood lignin. This substance was not found in healthy parenchyma. Living tissues alone were capable of forming this substance. Histochemical reactions by phloroglucinol-HCl and Loele's reagents revealed that high peroxidase activity was located around the lignified cell walls. All cells in the sections were alive judging from plasmolysis except those on the cut surface. However, we could not determine exactly whether the lignification of cell walls had taken place before or after the fungal attack. Lignification in cell walls of parenchyma was incomplete even when the cells were infected.
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  • Satoshi WAKIMOTO, Tsutomu UEMATSU, Takeyuki MIZUKAMI
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 168-173
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: April 03, 2009
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    Two kinds of bacteriophage which attack Corynebacterium michiganense were isolated. The one named MiP1 was obtained from infected tomato stem, while the other, MiP1h, a host range mutant, was obtained from MiP1 culture. Seven out of 16 isolates of C. michiganense were resistant to MiP1, while, all of the isolates were susceptible to MiP1h. Neither MiP1 nor MiP1h phage was found to attack any other species of phytopathogenic bacteria used in this experiment.
    For plaque formation, these phages require certain limited conditions concerning both the concentration of bacterial suspension to be used as the indicator and incubation temperature of the seeded plates. To ensure plaque counting, 2.7×107 to 4.4×108 cells per ml concentration of the bacterial suspension is required, and the plates must be incubated under a temperature from 21 to 23°C.
    Both MiP1 and MiP1h phages has a head of 70mμ in diameter, with a tail of 160mμ in length and 20mμ in width. They are serologically closely related.
    Both the phages are inactivated gradually over 45°C, and completely inactivated at 55°C, in 10min, in water.
    One-step growth experiments at 22°C gave the latent period of the phages to be 240min. The average burst size appears to be somewhat different according to the phage strains: MiP1 phage produced more progenies than MiP1h.
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  • Keizo KATSUYA
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 174-179
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Race 21B of wheat leaf rust, Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm. f. sp. tritici Erikss., was found to have greater competitive ability than race 1A as cultured in mixtures on the wheat varieties Shinchunaga and Norin No.61 for 4 uredial generations. The superiority of race 21B was remarkable at low and moderate temperatures. The relative competitive ability of both races was found not to be influenced by the density of pustules on infected leaves. Pustules of race 21B grew faster than those of race 1A at low temperature. Under moderate and high temperatures race 21B was slightly faster than race 1A on the rust development.
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  • Yoji DOI, Shigemitsu TORIYAMA, Kiyoshi YORA, Hidefumi ASUYAMA
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 180-187
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: April 03, 2009
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    A rapid method designated “direct negative staining method”, has been developed to detect plant virus particles in fresh preparations. It is a combination of dipping and negative staining methods, being in principle similar to that reported recently by Hitchborn and Hills (1965) and Kitajima (1965). The procedure is as follows: A drop of 2% solution of sodium phosphotungstate (adjusted to pH 7.0 with NaOH, and added with small amount of neutral detergent as a spreader) was placed on a carbon-coated grid. The drop of stain, in which a fresh cut-end of an infected tissue piece was dipped for 2-3 seconds, was air-dried. The preparation was immediately examined under the electron microscope. By this method, elongated particles could be easily detected in all the tested 13 viruses, viz., tobacco mosaic virus, sugarcane mosaic virus, potato viruses X, Y and S, cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and azuki-bean mosaic virus (both belong to bean yellow mosaic virus group), carnation mosaic virus (=carnation vein mottle virus), soybean mosaic virus, soil-borne wheat mosaic virus, and barley yellow mosaic virus.
    As regards spherical or polyhedral viruses, particles of a virus isolated from Chenopodium album, carnation mottle virus, rice dwarf virus, rice black-streaked dwarf virus and tobacco ringspot virus were identified readily. Difficulty in revealing spherical or bacilliform particles in cucumber mosaic virus and alfalfa mosaic virus was considered to be due to breakdown of the particles during the treatment. In these viruses, however, a number of particles became discernible when the tissue piece to be examined was fixed by 5-10% formalin for 2-3 hours, and washed in distilled water, in advance of dipping. It was noted that the shape and fine structure of the particles in the preparations of all the foregoing viruses were well-preserved and the dimensions measured were comparable with those of previous workers. The direct negative staining method described here seems to be useful for detection of plant viruses. Especially it has advantage of simplicity and reliability in detection of latent viruses or virus complex. For instance, a preparation made from a carnation plant (cultivar Peter Fisher) infected with both carnation mosaic virus and carnation mottle virus readily demonstrated elongated particles of the former virus and spherical particles of the latter.
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  • Yasushi YASUDA, Teruhisa NOGUCHI, Katsuhiko OKADA, Akiji AOKI
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 188-193
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Citrinin isolated from cultures of Penicillium sp. AK-019 had a markedly inhibitory effect on local lesion formation on Nicotiana glutinosa leaves caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This paper reports the influence of this antibiotic on TMV infection.
    (1) When 100μg/ml of citrinin were infiltrated into N. glutinosa leaves through the petioles or by placing the lower surfaces of detached leaves on the solution, local lesion formation was almost completely inhibited. Even though by dipping the inoculated leaves into the solution for a few minutes, a considerable inhibitory effect on lesion formation was observed. On the other hand, citrinin did not affect TMV infection when TMV and citrinin were mixed in vitro and inoculated on N. glutinosa leaves.
    (2) Although local lesions were not formed on N. glutinosa leaves by the treatment with citrinin of 100μg/ml, infectious TMV apparently multiplied in the leaves and the TMV concentration gradually decreased with the prolonged times of treatment. In the case of citrinin concentration below 10μg/ml, however, TMV multiplied at the same rate as did in nontreatment.
    (3) The effect of citrinin, which inhibits or delays the local lesion production by TMV on N. glutinosa leaves, is presumably caused by the delay of the rate of TMV multiplication in the leaves. It is suggested that this antibiotic acts simply on the surface of inoculated leaves.
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  • Hazime YOSHII
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 194-201
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    1) Daikon mosaic virus (DMV: the Japanese strain of turnip mosaic virus) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were sap inoculated on leaves of Chenopodium album or of C. amaranticolor plants. Ten to thirty days after inoculation, several necrotic spots which have no connection with the primary local lesions on the inoculated leaves were produced abruptly on upper young leaves. These necrotic spots were tentatively called “translocated necrotic Lesions” (TNLs, Fig. 1 and 3). In the case of Chenopodium plants, daily production of TNLs gradually decreased in number, and sixty to hundred days after inoculation TNL formation stopped completely.
    It was found that no TNL was produced on meristematic tissues of stem apices and also on mature leaves.
    From TNLs the viruses were recovered easily, while attempts to recover the viruses from non-necrotic portions of the same leaves were unsuccessful. Moreover, the leaf with TNLs showed no cross protection reaction against challenge inoculation of the same virus (Fig. 2).
    2) Local lesion hosts of tobacco mosaic virus-tomato strain (TMV-T), Nicotiana sylvestris or N. glutinosa plants were grafted with N. tabacum var. Xanthi, a systemic (mosaic) host of the virus strain. One to two months after grafting, the virus was inoculated on leaves of the Xanthi part of the grafted plant. Forty to sixty days after inoculation of the virus, TNLs were produced abruptly on young leaves of the necrotic lesion hosts slightly below the stem apex (Fig. 4 and Fig. 5). In the case of N. sylvestris plants, TNLs were frequently produced on midribs.
    Unlike the case of Chenopodium plants, TNLs on young leaves near the stem apex of Nicotiana plants increased gradually in number and also enlarged themselves throughout the stem apex. The necrotic portions then extended downwards, and resulted finally in the death of the whole shoots of the necrotic hosts.
    Recovery of the inoculated virus from TNLs on Nicotiana plants was successful, while from the leaf portion outside of TNLs it was unsuccessful. Moreover, no cross protection reaction of the non-necrotic portions of the leaf against challenge inoculation of the same virus was observed.
    3) The mechanisms of TNL formation and the cause of the regularity of TNL distribution within the shoot of necrotic host plants have been explained, according to the hypothesis of “transcription of viral code by the host cell” reported elsewhere43) as follows:
    The viral code carried by double stranded TMV-RNA is translocated from the primary necrotic lesions to the growing tissues of young shoots via sieve tube. When the code is transferred to a young cell having nucleus so far grown to be able to transcribe the viral code, the cell will reproduce the virus. When the code-carrying double stranded RNA is translocated into a mature cell of the necrotic host, the carrier will soon be degraded within the cytoplasm. Thus regularity in distribution of the translocated necrotic lesions on the affected shoots ensues.
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  • Norio SATO, Kohei TOMIYAMA
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 202-207
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    By using highly resistant potato tubers infected with an incompatible race of Phytophthora infestans, experiments were carried out to determine where, and when rishitin accumulates in the infected tissue. An analytical method for rishtin was developed by taking advantage of the red color formation by rishitin when mixed with conc. H2SO4. Most of the amount of rishitin seemed to be present in infected brown cells and adjacent cells.
    With the materials used in these experiments, rishitin was first detected about 10hrs, after inoculation (about 7-8hrs. after infection). After that it increased linearly with time for about 12hrs. Rishitin reached its maximum concentration within 2 or 3 days after inoculation, and then decreased rapidly.
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  • Tetsuro WATANABE, Yasuharu SEKIZAWA
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 208-217
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: April 03, 2009
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    1. The action mechanism of phenazine-5N-monooxide (II) against rice leaf blight bacterium was investigated relating to the electron transport system of the bacterium on the basis of the action mechanism of phenazine (I) already reported.
    2. (II) was reduced non-biologically to (I) by the addition of L-ascorbate or L-cysteine or reduced biologically in the presence of the bacterial cell suspension under anaerobic condition. The action of (II) against the bacterium was attributed to (I) formed after the reductive cleavage of the N-oxide bond.
    3. (I) and (II) did not inhibit the succinate dehydrogenase according to the experimental evidences as for the succinate oxidase system and succinate-phenazine methosulfate reductase of the bacterium. They also did not inhibit the triosephosphate dehydrogenase. Various reducing reagents (including L-ascorbate and L-cysteine) had not the reverse action against inhibitory action of (I) or (II).
    4. In the presence of (I) or (II) and succinate as the substrate, the reduction of cytochrome b1 in the succinate oxidase system of the bacterium was still observed, however the reduction of cytochrome c and a1 were suppressed. The apperent respiration observed by manometric or polarographic experiments under the presence of (I) or (II) and succinate as the substrate suggested the operation of the by-pass electron flow from succinate dehydrogenase or cytochrome b1 to atomospheric oxygen through the redox system; (I) _??_dihydrophepazine.
    5. In the presence of (I) or (II) under a limited incubation condition, inhibition against the uptake of ortho-phosphate and the dissimilation of glucose was observed with the slight acceleration of the apparent respiration.
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  • Yasuharu SEKIZAWA, Tetsuro WATANABE, Fumio KAI
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 218-223
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    1. The effect of phenazine-5N-monooxide, effective disinfectant against leaf blight disease of rice plant, upon the respiration and photosynthetic oxygen evolution of the rice leaf and photodegradation of the compound were investigated.
    2. Phenazine-5N-monooxide did not give any influence upon the respiration and photosynthetic oxygen evolution of the detached whole leaves at the concentration of 2.5μg/ml, which is more than a half inhibitory concentration for the causal bacterium.
    3. Phenazine-5N-monooxide also did not give any influence upon either the respiration or photosynthetic oxygen evolution of the detached whole leaves when aqueous suspension at 200ppm was sprayed to the potted plant, this amount being entirely enough to control the disease.
    4. In the experimental run using slices of the plant leaves, the photosynthetic oxygen evolution was suppressed by the addition of phenazine, whereas phenazine-5N-monooxide did not give any marked inhibitory effect indicating that the introduction of N-oxide group masked the undesirable properties of the mother compound. The reductive cleavage of the N-oxide bond of phenazine-5N-monooxide by the thin slices of rice plant leaves or leaves homogenate was not observed.
    5. Phenazine-5N-monooxide in the solution was gradually changed to unidentified photodegradated compounds having lower bioligical activity by a non-biological photochemical reaction.
    6. Unidentified photodegradated compound UP-1 isolated in crystals had m.p. 131°C empirical formula C12H8N2O, and M.W. 197. It seemed an isomeric compound of phenazine-5N-monooxide.
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  • T. MIYAKAWA
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 224-233
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Seedlings of 18 Citrus spp., 1 Poncirus sp., 1 Aeglopsis sp., and 7 hybrid varieties were tested for their reaction to the Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV). The tests, conducted under the greenhouse condition (15-30°C), showed that all of the seedlings inoculated were susceptible and induced non-persistent mottling, and less frequently, some lines of the seedlings (Table 3, Fig. 4, F and G) were accompanied by crinkling 1-2 months after bud-inoculation. The viruliferous buds from the respective seedlings whose foliar symptoms had disappeared incited the typical dwarf symptoms upon further transfer to virus-free Satsuma budlings. Mottling, being of either flecking or oak-leaf-like pattern, was noticed shortly after inoculation. But there was consistent delay (3 months or more) in the formation of both leaf-bending and cupping (boat and spoon-shape) symptoms on the leaves of Satsuma seedlings and budlings.
    A lime-reactive component, or tristeza virus (TV), was present as a consistently recoverable contaminant from the dwarfed trees in the field. The TV component was successfully separated from the SDV component by a prior passage through Poncirus trifoliata seedlings, which, upon further transfer to West Indian lime seedlings, manifested no lime reaction (Table 1 and 2; Fig. 1, B). This finding thus enabled the writer to observe the infectivity of the SDV component by itself to West Indian lime, which, otherwise, was too sensitive to the TV component.
    The inocula containing either SDV by itself or two components, that is, SDV and TV, caused no difference in the symptomatic expression of Satsuma nucellar seedlings and budlings (Fig. 2). Out of 7 virus isolates used in this test, there were some noticeable differences in their respective virulence to various nucellar seedlings. It is yet to be determined whether these differences are attributable to the presence of SDV strains or not.
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  • Natsuki NISHIHARA
    1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 234-238
    Published: June 30, 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 242-243
    Published: 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 243a
    Published: 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 243b
    Published: 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1969 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 243c
    Published: 1969
    Released: February 19, 2009
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