Japanese Journal of Phytopathology
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
Volume 60 , Issue 2
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Masao GOTO, Takeshi HIKOTA, Masami NAKAJIMA, Yuichi TAKIKAWA, Shinji T ...
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 147-153
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Copper-resistance was analyzed with 189 strains of plant pathogenic bacteria that belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Erwinia, Agrobacterium, Clavibacter and Curtobacterium. For the assay, CuSO4 or copper compounds (copper fungicides) were incorporated into Bacto potato-dextrose agar (PDA). Bacteria that grew on PDA containing CuSO4 at concentrations of 1.25mM or more were arbitrarily categorized as copperresistant. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of CuSO4 on the copper-PDA medium were one to two times greater than with casitone-yeast extract-glycerol agar medium, and 100 times greater than with aqueous solution. Copper-resistant strains were detected in many of the plant pathogenic bacteria, particularly in pseudomonads. The high MIC of CuSO4 were specifically found in members of the rRNA II subgroup of Pseudomonas such as P. cepacia and P. gladioli. Resistance to CuSO4 did not necessarily correlate with resistance to copper fungicides. In P. cepacia, P. gladioli, P. syringae pv. actinidiae, A. radiobacter and A. tumefaciens, copper- and streptomycin-resistances were concurrently found in the same strains. Copper-resistant strains of A. tumefaciens belonged to biovar 1 (all of 3 strains), biovar 2 (1 of 8 strains) and biovar undetermined (1 of 2 strains). A copper-resistant strain of A. radiobacter also belonged to biovar 1. Six strains of A. vitis tested were all copper-sensitive.
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  • Etsuo KIMISHIMA, Yoshinori KOBAYASHI
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 154-161
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Characterization of three monoclonal antibodies (MAs: PC1A6, PC1B2 and PC1C5) raised against mycelial suspension of Phytophthora capsici was analyzed. The reactivities of mycelial materials to MAs were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. Epitopes recognized by PC1A6, PC1B2 and PC1C5 were different from each other. PC1C5 showed genus specific reactivities in the ELISA test and Western blot analysis. This suggested that Phytophthora isolates studied had a common epitope recognized by PC1C5. Results of Western blot analysis showed that the epitopes recognized by PC1A6, PC1B2 and PC1C5 might be placed on several components with different molecular weight which were separated by SDS-PAGE. The immunogenic antigens of each MA were eluted at the first peak containing both polysaccharides and proteins on a Sephadex G-200 column. Mycelial suspension from P. capsici was treated with proteinase K and periodate, and then assayed by ELISA, DIBA and Western blot analysis. The results suggested that PC1A6 recognized a carbohydrate epitope and, that PC1B2 and PC1C5 recognized protein epitopes.
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  • Norio SATO
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 162-166
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effect of water temperature on conversion of the germinability from indirect to direct type of the sporangia of Phytophthora infestans was investigated. The sporangia produced on inoculated potato tuber slices were suspended in the tap water of Hokkaido Natl. Agric. Exp. Stn. which was very favorable for both indirect and direct germination. When the suspensions were incubated at the temperatures of 30-36°C, the ability of indirect germination was lost and the sporangia were converted to directly germinative type. The higher the water temperature was, the conversion occurred the more rapidly. This was also true between 20 and 30°C. By incubating the suspensions for 16-24hr at 33°C, almost all (>95%) sporangia could be converted to directly germinative type. By using such sporangia, effect of water temperature on the proportion and rapidity of direct germination was also investigated. The comparatively low temperatures of 10-17°C were optimum to achieve the highest proportion of direct germination (>95% in 48hr), while the comparatively high temperatures of 22-24°C were optimum to achieve the largest rapidity of direct germination, where nearly maximum proportions (about 60%) were attained in 24hr. Both the extreme temperatures of 3 and 28°C were inhibitory to direct germination.
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  • Masami YOSHIKAWA, Norihisa HASHIMOTO, Tatsuo YOKOYAMA
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 167-174
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    An unreported crown rot was found on asparagus plants in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan, in mid-May of 1989. Farmers were obliged to abandon asparagus cultivation even two years after planting. Brown to reddish brown lesions extended from the upper surface of crowns, where many buds of shoots were present, toward internal crown tissues resulting in serious yield loss. The causal pathogen was identified as Fusarium moniliforme var. intermedium (teleomorph: Gibberella fujikuroi var. intermedia) on the basis of its morphological characteristics and the common name of the disease, crown rot, was proposed.
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  • Hajime KATO, Shigeyuki MAYAMA, Rie SEKINE, Eiji KANAZAWA, Yuka IZUTANI ...
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 175-185
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Magnaporthe grisea produced phialides and microconidia. Some of isolates, which possesed mating ability, from various gramineous plants; finger millet, rice, wheat, Oryza longistaminata, Eriochloa villosa, Panicum bisulcatum, Digitaria sanguinalis, D. smutsii, D. horizontalis and Brachiaria plantaginea had phialide and microconidium production potential. The phialide is darkly pigmented, vase-shaped, spherical to obclavate, with tapered apex, terminal collarette, basal septum, thick-walled, 5.9-12.5 (mean 8.9) μm long, 3.3-7.2 (4.5) μm thick in the broadest part, arising solitarily or sympodially from aerial hyphae. Microconidia are hyaline, cylindrical, rounded at the end first, then lunate with thin cell wall, no septum, 5-8 (mean 6) μm long, 0.5-0.8 (0.7) μm wide and with one nucleus. The first rod-shaped microconidium is formed blastically from the conidiogenous cell apex within the collarette. Successive rod-shaped microconidium is formed blastically from alternate sides of the conidiogenous cell. Subsequent microconidia are produced from the same locus. Accumulated curved microconidia form a globose mass, rarely with slime, at the tip of a phialide. Each conidium continues to grow and then secedes. The shape of the microconidia becomes crescent. Light does not affect microconidium formation. Oatmeal agar and potato dextrose agar are suitable for microconidium production.
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  • Soon-Bae KWON, Nobumichi SAKO, Kazusato OHSHIMA
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 186-195
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The nucleotide sequence of the rakkyo strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-R) RNA corresponding to about 2, 000 nucleotides from the 3′ terminus was determined. The sequence contained the 30K protein gene, coat protein gene and 3′ non-coding region which are located in nucleotides 687 to 1493, 205 to 684 and 1 to 204 from the 3′ terminus of the genome, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that TMV-R conserved a higher degree of nucleotide sequence homology with those of TMV-common strains (-OM and -vulgare) than those of four other tobamoviruses. Comparing the deduced amino acid sequence of the coat protein between TMV-R and -OM strains, 8 substitutions were found in total 158 amino acids. The deduced 30K protein homology between TMV-R and -OM was 95.5%, showing 12 amino acid substitutions. TMV-R could efficiently infect and multiply in protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bright Yellow (BY), differing from the previous data using intact BY plants. The results indicated that the amino acid substitutions in the 30K protein might be associated with deficiency of function as transport protein for TMV-R in BY.
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  • Shin OKAMOTO, Takashi OKU, Tsuneo TSUCHIZAKI
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 196-201
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Pathogenic races of wheat leaf rust fungus (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici) collected in Japan during 1990 to 1992 were identified using a Japanese race differential set, consisting of both international standards and Japanese additionals. Race 1B was common in Kanto, Chubu, Kinki and Chugoku districts. In Hokkaido, various races with wider virulence spectrum than that of race 1B were detected. Distribution of races was almost the same as that reported during the previous 60 years in Japan. Races which had never been detected earlier, such as race 8 and race 73, were identified from samples collected in Hokkaido. Reactions of 19 Thatcher-backcrossed near-isogenic lines with single leaf rust resistance gene were also examined. Eleven races identified by the Japanese differential set were divided into 27 virulence phenotypes by using the near-isogenic lines. Only one line with resistance gene Lr24 was resistant to all the cultures tested.
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  • Jorge JHONCON, Masahiko MIURA, Shinji TSUYUMU
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 202-207
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A clone pEC301 which produces at least four polygalacturonases was obtained from a genomic library of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora EC1 on plasmid pUC118. The results of restriction mapping of the 5.8kb EcoRI insert and of subcloning analysis indicated that a 1.8kb Ksp632I fragment produces at least four polygalacturonases. By isoelectric focusing followed by the activity staining for polygalacturonase, the pI of the four main Polygalacturonases were at 9.5, 6.0, 5.6 and 5.0. Subclones producing these polygalacturonases were able to macerate potato tuber tissue.
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  • Jorge JHONCON, Fukumi SAKAI, Shinji TSUYUMU
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 208-215
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    DNA region consists of 1804 bases (b) was shown to produce four Polygalacturonases (Peh) in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (E.c.c.) EC1. The sequence of this region was determined in both directions. In this DNA fragment, there was one open reading frame (ORF1) that encodes for a protein of 402 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 42, 646 which is in the range of previously reported molecular weight of E.c.c. Peh. The sequence of the amino acids deduced from ORF1 showed 90% homology with that of reported E.c.c. Peh. A possible signal peptide of 26 amino acids was found. Several shorter ORF were also found from both strands. Possible role of remaining 595b for the production of four Peh was discussed.
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  • Shinya TSUDA, Kaoru HANADA, Ichiro FUJISAWA, Mitsuro KAMEYA-IWAKI, Kei ...
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 216-220
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Takao KOBAYASHI, Masaomi ONIKI
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 221-224
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Hiroyuki TANPO, Hideyoshi TOYODA, Teruo NONOMURA, Seiji OUCHI
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 225-227
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Chikara MASUTA, Yumiko HAYASHI, Masashi SUZUKI, Shigeru KUWATA, Yoichi ...
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 228-232
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Kazuhiko MATSUDA, Hideyoshi TOYODA, Takatsugu NISHIDA, Hitomi NISHIO, ...
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 233-235
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Setsuo SERIZAWA, Takeshi ICHIKAWA, Hiroshi SUZUKI
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 237-244
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a cyclic disease in which a spring to early summer phase in leaves and other green tissues alternates with a late winter to early spring phase in branches and trunk. A close association between the number of diseased leaves on vines of kiwifruit cv. “Hayward” in spring and the severity of disease development on those branches and trunk after winter was confirmed by investigation in the field, although some exceptions to this trend were observed. The host resistant reaction in fall to early winter to growth of the bacterium varied equally in spring to early summer when the mean temperature per 10 days was approximately 20°C. When the temperature was higher than 22°C, growth of the bacterium was abruptry inhibited by the appearance of wound-healing tissue surrounding the infected area, and the bacterial population declined rapidly. A few bacteria remained alive during the summer in diseased tissue. In many cases, however, recurrence of the disease on these branches after winter was prevented by wound-healing tissue surrounding the affected parts. Formation of wound-healing tissue on the affected parts gradually ceased when the temperature dropped gradually from 22 to 20°C. No healing of the affected tissue was observed after the temperature dropped to 15°C or below. When pieces of absorbent cotton saturated with bacterial suspensions were applied to the axillary buds and lenticells on branches from summer to winter, disease development in these specimens did not occur in the following early spring. The branches were attacked through damaged areas by bacteria dispersed from lesions formed in the spring on leaves from fall to early winter. The bacterium was latent in the cortex tissue of the branches, and grew and moved in the tissue from winter to early spring. It was clarified from the above results that the disease development in branches and trunk which appeard in late winter to early spring depends primarily on the degree of infection in fall to early winter.
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  • Naoto YAMAOKA, Tomomi YAMAMOTO, Issei KOBAYASHI, Hitoshi KUNOH
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 245-252
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It has been reported that the viability of Erysiphe graminis immersed in water after inoculation to barley coleoptile was not noticeably different from that kept in air, and the fungus eventually formed conidia 120hr after the onset of incubation. In the present study, it is reported that the viability of E. pisi is also unaffected by immersing in water after inoculation to barley coleoptile. However, immersed E. pisi formed abnormally elongated germ tubes at higher frequency than that of unimmersed ones. When germ tubes emerged from upper sites of conidium equater, the frequency of elongated germ tubes was much higher than that of conidia which emerged germ tubes from sites lower than the equater in both the air and water conditions. Moreover, the emerging sites of germ tubes were affected by environment conditions to which conidia had been exposed; if the conidia were incubated in air, more than 60% of germ tubes emerged from lower sites of conidium equater, while the emerging sites of germ tubes were at random when the conidia had been incubated in water.
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  • Katsuyuki YOSHIDA, Tomizo OHGUCHI
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 253-256
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of inhibitors of calcium-dependent metabolism on haustorium formation of Peronospora parasitica in Japanese radish root tissues were investigated. When the root tissues were pretreated with chlortetracycline, EGTA and Na3VO4, respectively, haustorium formation of the fungus was suppressed. The suppression by chlortetracycline was restored by addition of a calcium ionophore or a protein kinase activator. These results suggested that haustorium formation of P. parasitica might be closely related to calcium-dependent metabolic process in host.
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  • Shuhei TANAKA, Kengo MURAI, Shin-ichi ITO, Ken KATSUMOTO, Yasumichi NI ...
    1994 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 257-259
    Published: April 25, 1994
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Clubroot disease was found on wasabi (Eutrema wasabi Maxim.) growing in drained paddy fields in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The clubroot incidence was high in wasabi plants transplanted from one of two nursery beds set in drained paddy fields, where the occurrence of clubroot on Cardamine flexuosa With., a cruciferous weed, was more frequently observed. In the inoculation test, the clubroot fungus from the weed showed high pathogenicity to wasabi as well as that from Chinese cabbage. It is suggested that the fungus from the weed affects wasabi in fields.
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