Japanese Journal of Phytopathology
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
Volume 51 , Issue 5
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
  • Katsumi AKUTSU, Yoshiko DAIGO, Satoshi OKUYAMA
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 521-529
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Papillae containing ultrastructurally different components were observed in mesophyll cells of Welsh onion leaves inoculated with Puccinia allii. The components of the papillae observed in the mesophyll cells before penetration by the fungus were different from those formed after penetration. The papillae found before the fungal penetration were constituted only with fibrillar components, while the papillae formed after penetration contained non-fibrillar components in addition to the fibrillar components. The non-fibrillar components were primarily found around the haustorial necks, and sometimes around the haustorial bodies. Ultrastructural analysis of mesophyll cells of the leaves (cv. Ishikura-ippon-futonegi) before the papilla formation elucidated that the plasmalemma in mesophyll cells adjacent to the haustorial mother cells was retracted from the cell walls, and tubular or vesicular structures were observed in the paramural spaces. These structures appeared to be continuous with the plasmalemma or endoplasmic reticulum in the host cytoplasm. In addition to these structures, fibrillar materials were observed in the paramural spaces. The tubular or vesicular structures may play roles in the formation of the fibrillar papillae in Welsh onion-P. allii system.
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  • Mikihiro YAMAMOTO, Fumio NAMIKI, Syoyo NISHIMURA, Keisuke KOHMOTO
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 530-535
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The inheritance was determined for the reaction of strawberry to Alternaria alternate strawberry pathotype and its host-specific toxin (AF-toxin). Susceptible cv. Morioka-16 and resistant cv. Hokowase were used for the crosses. Susceptibility to the pathogen and sensitivity to the toxin were both inherited as a single locus with two alleles expressing incomplete dominance when heterozygous. Susceptible cv. Morioka-16 was found to be susceptible heterozygote and resistant cv. Hokowase was found to be resistant homozygote. Furthermore, susceptible homozygote selected from F1 progenies was more susceptible to the pathogen and also more sensitive to AF-toxin than cv. Morioka-16, susceptible heterozygote.
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  • Hideo NASU, Shintaro FUJII, Tatuo YOKOYAMA
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 536-545
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    A new symptom of grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Muscut of Alexandria’ and cv. ‘Glos Colman’), the evanescence of a bloom which normally covers on the skin of berries, has been prevailing in greenhouses in Okayama Prefecture, Japan, since several years ago. No necrotic lesion nor rot of berries was seen. Similar symptom has been also found on Japanese persimmon and apple fruits in Okayama. The evenescence of the bloom on affected berries is visible to the naked eyes in accordance with the extention of subhyaline, superficial creeping mycelium which tends to form mycelial networks on berries. After a later stage of the symptom development, black microsclerotia-like bodies are produced in abundance, which give to berries typical flyspeck symptom on them. Conidial structures, spiral tubular conidiophores and gourd-shaped conidia, are formed on the creeping mycelium, particularly around the microsclerotia-like bodies. Based on the morphological characteristics of the causal pathogens on grapevine, it was identified as Zygophiala jamaicensis Mason apud Martyn, a hyphomycete fungus. The causal fungus of flyspeck of Japanese persimmon and apple was also found conspecific with this species. On the diseased fruits concerned, however, there was no evidence for Leptothyrium pomi (anamorphic state of Schizothyrium pomi) which was thought to be the causal agent of flyspeck of various kinds of fruits. Two types of clony were segregated on the potato sucrose agar media. One (type A) is of fast growing type which produces both microsclerotia-like bodies and conidial structure in abundance. The other (type B) is of slow growing type which also produces the conidial structures well, but produces few microsclerotia-like bodies. The fungus can grow at a range of temperature at 6-28C and of pH 3-11. The optimum temperature for growth was at 20-25C. Inoculation tests by selected isolates from grapevine, Japanese persimmon and apple on non-injured fruits of grapevines, Japanese persimmons and apples revealed that these isolates are virulent to these fruits.
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  • Yasuharu MAMIYA
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 546-555
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The inoculation experiments on pine seedlings and saplings with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, were conducted to clarify the relations between nematode numbers and disease development in host plant at the initial stage of pathogenesis. The branch inoculated with nematodes was cut off at various intervals after inoculation. Cutting the branch 1 day after inoculation resulted in the delayed disease development on 4-year-old Pinus densiflora and P. thunbergii and did not cause disease for 9-year-old P. thunbergii. Disease development in seedlings and saplings, whose inoculated branches were cut 3 days after inouculation or later, was similar to the controls which were left without cutting. There were no significant differences in the numbers of dispersing individuals over various parts of tree between the two removal times of inoculated branches; 1 day and 3 days after inoculation. More advanced pathological responses of the inoculated branch were histopathologically observed on 3 days or afterwards than on 1 day after inoculation. The present experiments suggest that the pathological responses caused by the nematode activities at the infection site prevailed in the tree and reached a certain extent enough to initiate disease development as early as 3 days after inoculation.
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  • Michael D. BENTLEY, Yasuharu MAMIYA, Mitsuyoshi YATAGAI, Kazumasa SHIM ...
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 556-561
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The chemical nature of the substance responsible for straightening and immobilization of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been studied. The active substance was contained in the first- and second-year twigs of both the pine wilt resistant species, Pinus taeda, and the susceptible species, Pinus densiflora. The quantity of the active substance from P. taeda was greater than that from P. densiflora. The substance was a water soluble, highly polar material whose molecular weight was in the range of 1, 500 to 6000. The active substance consisted primarily of carbohydrates and possibly a very low concentration of phenolics lost its biological activity upon methylation. The substance was hydrolyzed only under rigorous acid hydrolysis conditions and thus lost its biological activity. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus did not have a general immobilization sensitivity to either phenolics or carbohydrates as a class.
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  • Ichiro FUJISAWA
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 562-568
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    An investigation was undertaken to obtain further information on aphid transmission of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from doubly infected turnip plants (Brassica campestris cv Yorii) to healthy ones. Both winged and wingless forms of Myzus persicae (SULZER) transmitted TuMV alone at a higher rate, but failed to transmit or seldom transmitted CMV alone. Both forms of Aphis gossypii GLOVER, showed three types transmission, TuMV alone, CMV alone and both viruses simultaneously, but they transmitted CMV alone more effectively. In the transmission test with successive transfers at 10-minute intervals, most of the M. persicae individuals transmitted TuMV alone to only the first plant of the series. And A. gossypii also commonly transmitted TuMV alone or CMV alone to the first plant only. When M. persicae and A. gossypii had fed first on infected leaves and then fed on anti-TuMV γ-globulin through a stretched parafilm membrane, the transmission of TuMV was prevented completely or decreased remarkably. And A. gossypii treated with anti-CMV γ-globulin after feeding on the infected leaves, transmitted TuMV regularly, but seldom transmitted CMV.
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  • Susamto SOMOWIYARJO, Nobumichi SAKO, Fukuji NONAKA
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 569-575
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Indirect enzyme-liked immunsorbent assay (I-ELISA) on plates not precoated with antibody was evaluated for detecting zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) in either purified preparation or infected plants. The suitable conjugate, method of bovine serum albumin treatment, and extraction medium for the I-ELISA are described. Alkaline phosphatase labeled affinity-purified goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) (commercial conjugate) was superior to our prepared conjugate of the alkaline phosphatase because the former conjugate resulted in enhancement of specific absorbance and reduction of non-specific absorbance. In the assay with commercial alkaline phosphatase conjugate, this procedure was more sensitive than double antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA, capable of detecting purified ZYMV at minimum concentration of 1-5ng/ml compared with 5-10ng/ml for DAS-ELISA. The dilution end points of crude edxtracts for identical leaves assayed with I-ELISA and DAS-ELISA were 106-107 and 105-106, respectively. It was found that non-precoated I-ELISA with commercial alkaline phosphatase conjugate is a useful tool for disease diagnosis of field samples. Since the endogenous peroxidase activity in ZYMV infected pumpkin was very high, the use of peroxidase labeled affinity-purified goat anti-rabbit IgG in non-precoated I-ELISA for detecting ZYMV in crude extracts could not be recommended.
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  • Yasuo ANDO, Etsuji HAMAYA, Masaomi ONIKI
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 576-581
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The processes of dieback in tea garden affected with gray blight caused by Pestalotia longiseta were investigated. Tea bushes (variety “Yabukita”) were sprayed with suspension of conidia of P. longiseta and plucked by a plucking machine for inoculation. At 3, 10, 20, 30 and 37 days after inoculation, the affected stems were collected and examined mycologicaly. During the examination period, detection ratio of P. longiseta had been changing decreasingly, conversely, that of Glomerella cingulata increasingly, namely the former was detected in ratios of 85.2, 78.1, 40.6, 47.6, and 6.6%, and the latter was in 7.4, 15.6, 47.5, 42.2 and 86.2%, respectively. In addition, G. cingulata showed a tendency to be detected more frequently from lower part of the tested stem. By microscopic observation, it was found that masses of conidia of G. cingulata were formed abundantly on the browned upper part of the stem, and numerous conidia and appressoria of the fungus were adhering to the apparently healthy lower part, in which some of epidermal cells were infected by the hyphae. These phenomena suggested that G. cingulata existing latently on tea bushes in common got vigorous at the cut end of the stem killed by P. longiseta and produced a great many conidia very quickly, and the healthy lower part of the stem would be heavily infected getting those conidia in plenty. Consequently, G. cingulata might become the most dominant fungus on the dieback stem.
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  • Shuichi YAMASHITA, Nobuyuki NONAKA, Shigetou NAMBA, Yoji DOI, Kiyoshi ...
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 582-590
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    A previously undescribed geminivirus, miscanthus streak virus (MiSV), was found in dip preparations from Miscanthus sacchariflorus Benth. et Hook. showing leaf streak and stunting, collected at Matsudo of Chiba prefecture in 1978. The virus was purified by homogenization using 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 5.6) containing 0.1% thioglycollic acid and 1% triton X-100, followed by chloroform clarification (20%), and then three cycles of differential centrifugations. The virus was purified as a well-defined band by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The purified preparations showed an UV absorption spectrum characteristic of a nucleoprotein. The sedimentation coefficient of the virus determined by analytical centrifugation was about 75S. The virus particles were about 18×30nm in size and contained DNA suggested by diphenyl amine test. The DNA was suggested to be singlestrand. In agar gel diffusion test, the antiserum (titer 128) of the virus formed a single band against the homologous antigen. The virus was serologically unrelated to maize streak virus and chloris striate mosaic virus of leafhopper-borne geminiviruses, and to cassava latent virus and tobacco leaf curl virus of whitefly-borne geminiviruses. The virus particles were observed as singles or aggregates in the nucleus, cytoplasm and vacuole of various cells. Obvious paired particles were often found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. In the vacuole, geometrical crystalline arrays formed from paired particles were also observed. So, the paired particles were considered to be natural nature of the virus. The virus was not transmitted by sap inoculation, and its vector was not known so far.
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  • Setsu MIYAMOTO, Akinobu OGUNI, Yuichi MIYAMOTO
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 591-594
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Nobuaki MATSUYAMA, Michiyo YAHARA, Satoshi WAKIMOTO, Shuhei KUBOTA
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 595-598
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Setsu MIYAMOTO, Yuichi MIYAMOTO
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 599-601
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Takeshi KANO, Shuichi YAMASHITA, Yoji DOI, Kiyoshi YORA
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 602-605
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Takeshi KANO, Shigetou NAMBA, Shuichi YAMASHITA, Yoji DOI, Kiyoshi YOR ...
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 606-612
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Takashi OKU, Shuichi YAMASHITA, Yoji DOI, Natsuki NISHIHARA
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 613-615
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    A culture of cooksfoot powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis DC.; culture D1) was isolated at Tokyo in 1985. No cleistothecium was observed in this fungus as previously described in Japan. The results of inoculation tests to 11 species from 8 genera of gramineous plants revealed that the host range of the fungus was limited to Dactylis sp.. This fungus was identified as a new type of forma specialis, E. graminis f. sp. dactylidis.
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  • Yoshihiro OHTSU, Tadayuki GOMI
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 616-622
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Makoto KAKISHIMA, Toshio YAMAMOTO, Masao TAGAMI
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 623-626
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Shuichi YAMASHITA, Yoji DOI, Kiyoshi YORA, Yasuhiro OKAMOTO, Shintaro ...
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 627-631
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    A previously undescribed rhabdovirus was found from East Indian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) showing streak on rootstalks and often chlorotic or ring spots on leaves, collected at Okayama prefecture in 1977. The rhabdovirus, ca. 90×300-340nm, having helical nucleocapsid with a pitch of 4.5nm, was detected in dip, partially purified and thin-sectioned preparations. Intracellular virus particles were observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of various cells. Nucleus of cells infected with the virus was characterized by the development of nuclear viroplasms. It suggested that the virus particles were maturated at the inner nuclear membrane and then passed through ER membrane into the cytoplasm. Since this is the first report of the virus isolate from Nymphaeaceae, as far as we know, the virus was designated lotus streak virus (LSV).
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  • Masaaki ARAKI, Shuichi YAMASHITA, Yoji DOI, Kiyoshi YORA
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 632-636
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Three viruses were found from gloriosa (Gloriosa rothschildiana), cultivated at Chiba in 1979-1980, showing leaf symptoms of fleck, stripe mosaic or mottling. A rhabdovirus, ca. 69×316nm, having helical nucleocapsid with a pitch of 4.5nm, was consistently detected in dip and thin-sectioned preparations from the fleck plants. Nucleus of infected cells was characterized by the development of nuclear viroplasms. It suggested that the virus is a rhabdovirus of nuclear multiplication type. As such rhabdovirus has been so far undescribed in Liliaceae, the virus was designated as gloriosa fleck virus (GlFV). A potyvirus, ca. 13×760nm, accompanying cytoplasmic inclusions was detected from stripe mosaic or mottling plants. The virus was transmitted only to gloriosa by sap inoculation, and identified to be gloriosa stripe mosaic virus (GSMV) reported in Germany. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was also detected mainly from the plants showing mottling symptoms.
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  • Shuichi YAMASHITA, Yoji DOI, Kiyoshi YORA
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 637-641
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • Shuichi YAMASHITA, Tomohide NATSUAKI, Yoji DOI, Kiyoshi YORA
    1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 642-646
    Published: December 25, 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    A new non-enveloped small bacilliform virus of ca. 28×120-130nm was found from canna plant (Canna sp.) showing systemic symptoms of veinal yellowing or necrosis, mottling and stunting collected at Iwai of Ibaragi prefecture in 1978. In thin sections, the virus particles were mainly observed as singles or aggregates in the cytoplasm of phloem cells. Virus-infected cells were also characterized by the development of vesicular structures. Since no small bacilliform virus has been reported from canna so far, the virus was designated as canna yellow mottle virus (CYMV). Small bacilliform viruses may be classified into two groups of cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) and orchid fleck virus (OFV) basing on their natures. The CYMV seemed to belong to the CSSV group.
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  • 1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 648a
    Published: 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
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  • 1985 Volume 51 Issue 5 Pages 648b
    Published: 1985
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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