Japanese Journal of Phytopathology
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
Volume 46 , Issue 4
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Takio ICHITANI, Toshinori SHINSU
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 435-441
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    During the past four years, a fungus causing rhizome rot of ginger has been isolated from soils and plants of both protected and outdoor ginger-growing areas throughout the cultivation season. The fungus could be consistently isolated from various parts of rotten ginger, especially from the basal part of terrestrial stem and rhizomes regardless of stages of disease development and locations. The fungus was isolated not only from soils in which ginger is being grown, but in places where ginger has previously grown. The fungus was isolated with high frequency from the lots devoted to intensive ginger cultivation through the years. The main morphological characteristics of the isolated fungus were identical with those of Pythium zingiberum Takahashi.
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  • Hiroshi HAGIWARA, Sinzo KOIZUMI, Shoshiro TAKEUCHI, Hajime MASAGO
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 442-447
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For the last 5 years, serious root rot disease of rhododendron hybrids has occurred in Mie prefecture, Japan. The symptoms were characterized by wilting, root rot and discoloration of roots and crowns. Among the several fungi isolated from diseased plants, both Phytophthora sp. and a fungus unidentified showed pathogenicity against rhododendron hybrids by artificial inoculation tests. But only the former made the same symptoms observed in the field, and the same fungus was reisolated from wilted plants. The causal fungus was identified as Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands on the basis of the morphological characteristics following Waterhouse. Since P. cinnamomi had been only known as one of the pineapple heart rot pathogen in Okinawa islands, this is the first report of it on rhododendron and in the Main Island, in Japan. Formation of oospore in the dual culture between two distinct isolates indicated that there were both compatibility types A1 and A2 of P. cinnamomi in Japan. Morphology and physiology of the asexual and sexual organs of the isolates were described.
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  • Fumiyoshi FUKUMOTO, Hiroshi TOCHIHARA
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 448-454
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Infectivity of the purified preparations of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) to Vigna sinensis Endle cv. Kurodane-Sanjaku remained unchanged during preservation for at least 30 months in 5 mM borate buffer, pH 8.6, at -20 C or -70 C. CMV in crude extract preparations in 50 mM borate buffer, pH 8.5 added with 5% sucrose or 1% Na-glutamate maintained a high infectivity for at least 37 months at -20 C. Purified CMV added with 0.025-0.05% NaN3 lost its infectivity during the storage of 2-12 months at 4 C. Addition of 0.01% dithiothreitol or 0.1% 2-mercaptoethanol had no significant effects on preservation of the virus infectivity. Purified virus preparations added with an equal volume of glycerol maintained considerably their infectivity for about 30 months at -20 C.
    Repetition of freezing and thawing applied to purified CMV preparations or crude extracts of CMV-infected tobacco leaves did not alter the virus infectivity. By freeze-drying, the virus infectivity in crude extracts was immediately reduced to the range of 21 to 73% of its original infectivty, whereas it was almost unaffected by the treatment in purified preparations. The loss of the virus infectivity in the crude extracts due to freeze-drying could be prevented by the addition of 0.3% polypeptone, 1% Na-glutamate, 5% sucrose or 1% Na-glutamate plus 5% sucrose. In such preparations the virus infectivity could be maintained for 25 months even at 35 C. Freeze-dried preparations of purified virus maintained its original infectivity for at least 30 months upon storage at 4 C, -20 C, or -70 C.
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  • Jae Eul CHOI, Nobuaki MATSUYAMA, Satoshi WAKIMOTO
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 455-463
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    By means of agglutination test with antisera produced against three different serovars of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae, positive reaction was observed not only with the antigens belonging to homologous pathovars but also with those of other pathovars such as X. campestris pv. citri, X. campestris pv. hordei, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and X. campestris pv. vitians, suggesting that they have common antigens. In gel diffusion test, however, the antisera showed specific reactions. Among antisera produced against three serovars of X. campestris pv. oryzae, the antiserum against Q7472 (serovar A) produced bands only with intact cells of the isolates belonging to homologous serovar, but antisera of Q7502 (serovar B-I) and N5837 (serovar B-II) produced bands with all species of xanthomonads and some of the other genera as well. The antiserum produced against sonicated cells of the isolate Q7472 produced bands with intact cells of all xanthomonads, but not with any species belonging to Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Rhizobium and Corynebacterium used in this experiment. The antiserum produced against sonicated cells of X. campestris pv. oryzae Q7472 showed positive reaction specifically with X. campestris pv. oryzae isolates, when antigens were previously treated by heating. Serovars B-I and B-II of X. campestris pv. oryzae showed severe autoagglutination in CaCl2 solution, but serovar A did not, suggesting possible differentiation of these serovars from each other or from other xanthomonads by this method.
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  • Toshimichi YOSHIZAKI
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 464-470
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    The addition of bentonite suspension to inoculum allowed the recovery of infectivity of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) on Nicotiana glutinosa L. from the homogenates of a single aphid which had been fed on infected plants or purified TMV through a membrane. Infectivity of ribonucleic acid (TMV-RNA) acquired by aphids was not recovered in this manner. Aphids lost infectivity of acquired TMV after 3 or 4 days when they were fed on 15% sucrose in 0.02 M phosphate buffer through a membrane. A majority of the infectious TMV acquired by aphids was released into honeydew, but not through the stylet into sucrose solution or leaf disks. Since the total amount of infectivity that remained in dead aphids decreased with increasing incubating periods at room temperature, it is considered that a certain quantity of TMV acquired by aphids is inactivated in the insect bodies.
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  • Tsuneo WATANABE, Shoji INOUE
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 471-479
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Penicillium spp. were predominant among 28 fungus genera recovered from the roots of the strawberry plants grown in the potted pasteurized soil set in the field, whereas Rhizoctonia and Fusarium spp. dominant among 30 genera from the roots in the potted natural soil. Increased growth of the plants in the former soil as compared with the growth in the latter about 130 days after transplanting may be attributable to the reduction of the root damage due to potential soilborne pathogens including Rhizoctonia solani by the antagonism of Penicillium spp.
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  • Tadaoki INABA, Toshihiko HINO
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 480-486
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Oospores of downy mildew fungus, Peronospora manshurica, of soybean, Glycine max, were well formed when the lesions were immersed in water or under humid condition. Oospores were not formed when the lesions were submerged in water or kept under dry condition. In the immersion treatment at 5 C neither oogonium nor oospore was formed and at 25C only a few oogonia were formed. At 10 C oogonia and oospores were formed, but in small number. At 15 and 20 C abundant oogonia and oospores were formed. At 15 C oogonia were abundantly formed after 3 day-immersion and reached the maximum number after 4 day-immersion. Oospores developed after 2 days following oogonium formation. At 20 C oogonia were formed after 3 day-immersion and reached the maximum number after 4 day-immersion, as well at 15 C. Oospore development at 20 C was, however, 1 day earlier than that at 15 C. Size of oogonium thus obtained was 36.0×40.2 μm, and that of oospore was 27.6 μm in diameter on the average.
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  • Toshihiro SENBOKU, Eishiro SHIKATA
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 487-493
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It was shown that japonica rice cultivars, Norin No. 8, Mihonishiki, Yukimochi and Kinmaze, were susceptible to rice grassy stunt disease, and that colonies of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål collected in the fields of Japan were capable of transmitting the disease. The infected japonica rice plants developed typical symptoms of the grassy stunt disease, such as severe stunting, excess tillering, yellowish green and narrowing leaves, scattering rusty spots on the leaves, and erect growth. The host range of the causal agent was limitted only to rice, and the most Graminea, such as maize, wheat, barley, oat, Panicum crus-galli var. frumentaceum Hook, P. milliaceum L. and Coix lachryma-jobi var. frumentaceum Makino, were not susceptible to the disease. No evidence of soil-and sap-transmission was obtained in this experiment. The results of insect transmission suggested that the causal agent of the grassy stunt disease was persistently transmitted by the insect vectors. None of the diseased plants which were treated with sulfanilamide-drugs and antibiotics (tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin) through the roots recovered the symptoms, suggesting that the grassy stunt disease was not mycoplasma-like organism, rickettsia or chlamydia origin. About 10% of the insects artificially injected with the extracts from the infected rice, transmitted the disease.
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  • Susumu YAMANAKA, Tsuneo NAMAI, Tadahiro KATO, Nobuki SASAKI, Norindo T ...
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 494-498
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of momilactones A (M-A) and B (M-B) extracted from rice husks, and of their derivatives, momilactone A alcohol (M-A-OH) and momilactone B acetate (M-B-Ac), upon the spore germination, germ tube growth and appressorium formation of rice blast fungus, Pyricularia oryzae Cavara were investigated. Three or six isolates belonging to 3 pathogenic race groups of this fungus were used in this study. The chemicals used were suspended in water containing 0.1% of Tween 80 and adjusted to the concentrations of 10-3, 10-4 and 10-5 M, respectively. All chemicals used inhibited spore germination and germ tube growth, but the inhibition % reduced with the elapse of incubation time during treatment. The antifungal activity was highest in M-B, followed by M-B-Ac and M-A-OH, and was least in M-A. The inhibitory activities differed considerably with the isolates used. The ED50 values in M-A and M-B of the inhibition of germ tube growth at 9 hr treatment were about 10-410-3 M and about 10-510-4 M, respectively. Only M-A stimulated the appressorium formation.
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  • Ryutaro SAKAI
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 499-503
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The physiological activities of coronatine on water uptake in potato tuber, root elongation in wheat and hypocotyl elongation in mung beans were compared with those of indol-3-acetic acid (IAA). In potato tuber discs the stimulation of water uptake by coronatine was considerably higher that of IAA. The elongation of etiolated hypocotyl segments was slightly affected by coronatine, while markedly stimulated by IAA. Therefore, coronatine appears to lack the typical activity of auxin to elongate mung bean hypocotyl segments. Coronatine and IAA showed similar effects on root elongation in wheat. Therefore, coronatine appears to have the typical ability of auxin to inhibit root elongation. These results on physiological studies of coronatine suggest that coronatine may be claimed to have a tissue specificity clearly different from that of IAA.
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  • Osamu HORINO, Toshiaki YAMADA
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 504-509
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The genes of IR 26 responsible for resistance to the five bacterial groups, I, II, III, IV and V of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae (Ishiyama 1922) Dye 1978 from Japan were analyzed. The resistant variety IR 26, the susceptible variety Todorokiwase and their cross hybrids F1 and F2 plants were tested for resistance to each of the representative isolates of the five bacterial groups; T7174 for group I, T7147 for group II, T7133 for group III, H 75373 for group IV and H 75304 for group V.
    Adult plants grown in the experimental paddy field were inoculated by double needle prick method. Three weeks later, the inoculated plants were scored for disease-index number according to the standard proposed by Ezuka and Horino (1974). With the disease-index number to bacterial groups I, II, III, IV and V, F1 and F2 means fell between the resistant and susceptible parents. F2 segregation, however, resulted in a continuous distribution with a wide range from 0.0 to 7.0 for bacterial groups I, II and III, from 0.0 to 6.0 for group IV, and from 0.0 to 5.0 for group V. This suggests that several multiple genes and/or polygenes are responsible for the resistance to bacterial groups I, II, III, IV and V.
    The broad-sense heritabilities for resistance to bacterial groups I, II, III, IV and V in F2 generation were so high as estimated to be 0.892, 0.882, 0.877, 0.827 and 0.714, respectively, suggesting that the resistance to those five bacterial groups could successfully be selected. Besides, it was indicated that the differences among the estimates of heritability for resistance to bacterial groups I, II, III, IV and V most likely depended on the aggressiveness of the isolate used. Estimate of heritability for resistance to bacterial group V which is relatively weak aggressive isolate was somewhat lower than others.
    On the other hand, there were also found in F2 generation high positive genotypic correlation coefficients (γG(B)=0.6-0.8) among the resistances to bacterial groups I, II, III, IV and V. These correlations are quite favorable for simultaneous selection of resistant plants to those five bacterial groups.
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  • Yôsuke MINO, Ryutaro SAKAI, Kenji UCHINO, Toshiyuki SASABUCHI
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 510-516
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Alterations of phenolics in potato tuber discs treated with coronatine, a pathotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. atropurpurea, were examined in relation to the changes in some oxidase activities involved in their metabolism. The content of phenolics was higher in coronatine treated discs than in non-treated discs. This was also true for the levels of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and ascorbate oxidase activities, their increases by coronatine treatment being markedly inhibited by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. An isoperoxidase induced specifically by coronatine treatment was recognized by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Among substrates tested, only o-diphenols were oxidized by polyphenol oxidase, and o- and p-diphenols (except guaiacol) by peroxidase irrespective of treatment. Researches on the physiological activities induced by coronatine were discussed to be useful for the elucidation of host-parasite interaction.
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  • Minoru WATANABE, Kiyomi NAITO, Kunio KANEKO, Hitoshi NABASAMA, Daijiro ...
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 517-525
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris phages (3 isolates of phage S, K and '76) were isolated from black rot diseased leaves of cabbage, cauliflower and turnip, and some of their fundamental properties were investigated. The particle of phage S was tadpole-like with a polyhedral head of about 50×60 nm and a tail of about 110×10 to 12 nm. Phages S and K attacked specifically X. campestris pv. campestris, but not X. campestris pv. citri, pv. cucurbitae, pv. oryzae, pv. phaseoli and pv. pruni. Phages S and K showed different host range to bacterial isolates of X. campestris pv. campestris. The thermal inactivation point of phage S was 53 C in distilled water and 65 C in potato ring-rot liquid medium by 10 min incubation. Phage S was more stable in its lytic activity in potato ring-rot liquid medium or in phosphate buffer than in distilled water. Phage S was also stable at pH 7.0, but not at pH 4.9 or 9.1. Throughout all conditions of different three dispersants and five pH levels phage S was more stable at 5 C than at 28 C. One-step growth experiments showed that multiplication of phage '76 was optimal at 28 C. The latent period, rise period and average burst size in the case of single infection were 75 min, 40 min and 13 plaque forming units, respectively. At 30 C or at the temperatures below 26 C, however, the latent period was prolonged and the average burst size became smaller.
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  • Hiroshi KAMIUNTEN, Junichi KOBA, Satoshi WAKIMOTO
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 526-532
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
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    Two kinds of filamentous phage, named XCf1, and XCf2, were found to be released from the living cells of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri isolates and some of their properties were investigated in comparison with X. campestris pv. oryzae phages Xf and Xf2.
    The phages XCf1 and XCf2 were releaed from the bacterial isolates N 6101-1 and N 6107, respectively and they could attack only X. campestris pv. citri isolates. They multiplied in a liquid medium in parallel with bacterial multiplication to reach maximum concentration at about 105 PFU/ml. The phages XCf1 and XCf2 were similar in particle length ranging from 800 to 1100 nm. Both phages were heat resistant and survived even the treatment at 80 C for 10 min, but inactivated by the treatment with organic solvents such as chloroform, methyl alcohol, ethylether and acetone.
    Serological inactivation tests revealed that both phages were closely related each other. Anti-XCf1 serum readily inactivated the phage Xf, but anti-Xf serum did not inactivate the phage XCf1, suggesting some relationship between the two. The phage XCf2 showed very slight serological relationship with Xf but not at all with Xf2.
    Ten isolates of X. campestris pv. citri out of 33 tested released XCf1 and 4 released XCf2.
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  • Tadaoki INABA, Toshihiko HINO
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 533-538
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Conidium suspension of soybean downy mildew fungus, Peronospora manshurica, was inoculated to floral organ of 5 soybean cultivars 30-33days after sowing and to young pod after 40-43days. After harvesting, the percentage of oospore-encrusted seeds was estimated. Oospore-encrusted seeds were found to be formed after either flower or pod inoculation, and the percentage of oospore-encrusted seeds was high in Denko-okuharawase and Okuharawase cultivars and low in Hakucho, Raicho and Wasemidori cultivars. On the innermost layer of pod in contact with ospore-encrusted seed, mass of oospores was also found. As a result of a survey involving 38 samples from 27 cultivars collected from various parts of Japan, the percentage of oospore-encrusted seeds was found to range between 0.1 and 23.4% in 34 samples from 23 cultivars, while oospore-encrusted seeds were not observed in 4 samples from 4 cultivars. Difference in percentage related to the localities where sample collection was made could not be detected.
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  • Takio ICHITANI, Yoshiaki CHIKUO
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 539-541
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A fungus was isolated from rotten mioga plants, rhizosphere soils and plant residues obtained from different mioga-growing areas. The fungus was highly pathogenic to the young potted mioga plants. The morphological characteristics of the fungus were identical with those of Pythium zingiberum Takahashi.
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  • Koji KAGEYAMA, Tadao UI
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 542-544
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A modified Pieczarka's medium in which vancomycin was substituted by agrimycin was used for the isolation of Pythium spp. from soils and roots. Using this medium Pythium spp. were effectively isolated from soils in 9 fields by the soil plate method, and also from infected tissues of 3 crop species collected from 6 fields.
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  • Sadao KOBAYASHI, Masahiko MIYAHARA, Daijiro HOSOKAWA, Minoru WATANABE, ...
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 545-548
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Setsumi ITOI, Jun YAMAMOTO, Sunao KARINO, Sakae ARASE, Hajime KATO
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 549-552
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hermaphrodites were found in Pyricularia sp. from ragi, Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. There were two compatibility groups, A (isolate G 10-1 and P 5-1) and a (isolate Z 2-1, Z 5-1 and Z 7-1). Perithecia with white beaks were produced on the side of mating type A and perithecia with black beaks on the side of mating type a at the junction between compatible colonies when crossed on media. Respective isolates were considered to be hermaphrodites. Some isolates of mating type A (isolate F 1-8 and F 1-10) and of mating type a (isolate K 1-1 and K 9-1) behaved like males. Sexual cells have not yet been determined.
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  • Shaw-Ming YANG, Charles A. THOMAS
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 553-555
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Ichiro UEDA, Eishiro SHIKATA
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 556-558
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Tadao MISAWA, Shunichi YAMAMOTO, Shigekazu TANI
    1980 Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 559-560
    Published: September 25, 1980
    Released: February 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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