Nippon Saikingaku Zasshi
Online ISSN : 1882-4110
Print ISSN : 0021-4930
ISSN-L : 0021-4930
Current issue
Displaying 1-2 of 2 articles from this issue
  • Fumihiro ISHIKAWA, Michio HOMMA, Genzoh TANABE, Takayuki UCHIHASHI
    2024 Volume 79 Issue 1 Pages 1-13
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: February 22, 2024

    Proteins in the cells are born (synthesized), work, and die (decomposed). In the life of a protein, its birth is obviously important, but how it dies is equally important in living organisms. Proteases secreted into the outside of cells are used to decompose the external proteins and the degradation products are taken as the nutrients. On the other hand, there are also proteases that decompose unnecessary or harmful proteins which are generated in the cells. In eukaryotes, a large enzyme complex called the proteasome is primarily responsible for degradation of such proteins. Bacteria, which are prokaryotes, have a similar system as the proteasome. We would like to explain the bacterial degradation system of proteins or the death of proteins, which is performed by ATP-dependent protease Clp, with a particular focus on the ClpXP complex, and with an aspect as a target for antibiotics against bacteria.

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  • Shinji TAKAI, Yasutaka MIZUNO, Yasunori SUZUKI, Yukako SASAKI, Tsutomu ...
    2024 Volume 79 Issue 1 Pages 15-24
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: February 22, 2024

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular gram-positive coccobacillus which is a well-known cause of foal pneumonia and/or enteritis in equine veterinary medicine. More than 300 cases of R. equi infection have been reported since the first description of human disease in 1968. Most patients who become infected with R equi are immunocompromised, such as those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), recipients of organ transplantation, and patients receiving cancer treatment. However, there are increasing reports of the immunocompetent hosts. The pathogenicity of R. equi has been attributed to the presence of plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins (Vap). To date, three host-associated virulence plasmid types of R. equi have been identified as follows: the circular pVAPA and pVAPB, related, respectively, to equine and porcine isolates in 1991 and 1995, and a recently described linear pVAPN plasmid associated with bovine and caprine strains in 2015. More recently, these three plasmid types have been re-found in the human isolates which were isolated during 1980s to 1990s. Not only horses, but also pigs, goats, cattle and their environment should be considered as a potential source of R. equi for humans. In this review, we shed light on the current understanding of R. equi as an emerging zoonotic pathogen.

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