Basketball is a major sport worldwide among different age groups that leads to a high frequency of injuries at multiple body sites. Upper and lower extremities and lower back are common pain sites in basketball players; however, there is little information about the relationship between upper or lower extremity pain and lower back pain. This study elucidated the associations between upper extremity (shoulder and elbow) pain and lower back pain (LBP) among young basketball players. We conducted a cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires mailed to 25,669 young athletes; the final study population comprised 590 basketball players, and their median age was 13 years (range: 6-15 years). The point prevalence rates of lower back, shoulder, elbow, and upper extremity pain among young basketball players were 12.9% (76/590), 4.6% (27/590), 2.7% (16/590), and 7.1% (42/590), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that upper extremity pain was significantly associated with LBP (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 7.86; 95% confidential interval [CI], 3.93-15.72). Shoulder pain was significantly associated with training per week (> 4 days) (adjusted OR: 4.15; 95% CI: 1.29-13.40) and LBP (adjusted OR: 13.77; 95% CI: 5.70-33.24). This study indicates that upper extremity and shoulder pain is associated with LBP among young basketball players. Assessing for lower back pain, as well as elbow and/or shoulder pain, may help prevent severe injuries in young basketball players. In conclusion, parents and coaches should be properly re-educated to help improve lower back, upper extremity, and shoulder pain among young basketball players.
The systemic cytokine response during surgery has been reported to be stimulated by the molecules released from damaged cells, called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The relationship between DAMPs and liver transplantation has not been reported. We aimed to clarify the relationship between the plasma levels of DAMPs and the short-term post-transplant outcomes, including mortality and postoperative multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). This retrospective cohort study enrolled 61 patients who underwent liver transplantation. Mitochondrial DNA fragments, as mitochondria-derived DAMPs (mtDAMPs), were isolated from frozen plasma obtained at the start and the end of transplantation and were quantified by polymerase chain reaction. The short-term post-transplant outcomes were compared among the groups categorized based on the median value of the intraoperative fluctuation of mtDAMPs levels. The mtDAMPs levels were increased from the start to the end of transplantation in 52 recipients (85.2%, n = 61). Regarding mortality, no significant differences were noted between the high group (n = 30) and the low group (n = 31). The higher plasma levels of mtDAMPs were correlated with the longer duration of postoperative vasopressor support (P < 0.05). Importantly, the rate of MODS on post-operative day 1 was significantly higher in the high group (high vs. low group: 21 patients [70%] vs. 11 patients [35.1%], P < 0.01). In conclusion, mtDAMPs were increased in plasma during liver transplantation in most recipients. This elevation was not associated with mortality, but associated with the post-transplant recovery. Measuring plasma mtDAMPs may be helpful for predicting posttransplant recovery among liver-transplant recipients.
In developed countries, the relationship between education level, wealth, and healthy aging have been found to be mediated by modifiable risk factors, such as obesity, physical activities, and smoking status. The present study was to investigate the association between education level, monthly per-capita expenditure (PCE), and healthy aging in the older Indonesian population, and to clarify modifiable risk factors that mediate this association. A 7-year prospective longitudinal study (2007-2014) was conducted on 696 older Indonesian individuals (≥ 50 years) living in 13 different provinces in Indonesia during the survey periods. Data on educational level, PCE, and modifiable risk factors were collected in 2007. Information on healthy aging was obtained in both 2007 and 2014. A multivariate-adjusted logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for healthy aging by education level and PCE. The mediating effects were estimated using a four-way effect decomposition. Out of 696 eligible subjects, 206 (29.6%) were judged as healthy aging in 2014. The OR (95% CI) for healthy aging for participants with a higher education level was 1.81 (1.23-2.65) compared with those with a lower education level, and no significant association was observed between PCE and healthy aging. An association was thus observed between education level and healthy aging, but not PCE. Importantly, the association between education level, PCE, and healthy aging does not appear to be mediated by the modifiable risk factors. Priorities in making health policy would be different between developed countries and developing countries.
Colorectal cancer is the third cause of cancer and the second leading cause of death worldwide. The CD44 gene plays a key role in malignant processes, including growth, survival, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and metastasis. It is also known that some variants as rs187116 (c.67+4883G>A) and rs7116432 (c.2024+779A>G) can modulate the function of the CD44 gene and malignant transformation in several neoplasms. This study aims to explore, for the first time, the association of the CD44 rs187116 and rs7116432 variants in patients with colorectal cancer. Genomic DNA from 250 patients and 250 healthy blood donors were analyzed. The identification of variants was made by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology. Association was calculated by the odds ratio (OR) test and multivariate analysis. Individuals carrying the G/A and A/A genotypes for the rs187116 polymorphism showed an increased risk for colorectal cancer (OR = 3.11, 95% CI: 1.87-5.16, P = 0.001 and OR = 3.59, 95% CI: 2.06-6.25, P = 0.001, respectively). After adjusting for age and gender, these same genotypes and the G/G genotype of the rs7116432 polymorphism were associated with TNM stage and tumor location in the colon. Moreover, the A-G (rs187116 and rs7116432) haplotype was associated with increased risk; while, the haplotype G-A (rs187116 and rs7116432) was related with decreased risk. In conclusion, our results suggest that the here analyzed CD44 variants are involved with risk, TNM stage and tumor location in colorectal cancer.
The fibrinolytic system plays an important role in breast cancer, favoring progression through extracellular-matrix degradation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and cellular proliferation. The expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in breast cancer tissue is widely recognized as an unfavorable prognostic factor. However, fibrinolytic activity associated with uPA cannot be reliably measured in the blood because of the rapid inhibition of uPA by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). By contrast, circulating microvesicles (Mvs) in peripheral blood protect bound enzymes from inhibition. Mvs are extracellular vesicles, released from various types of cells, and their size fluctuates between 100 and 1,000 nm. Mvs carry DNA, RNA, miRNA, and proteins, thereby serving as a source of horizontal communication between cells. We investigated whether fibrinolytic activity on circulating Mvs reflects breast cancer progression. The study population consisted of 13 patients with breast cancer and 13 healthy women. The cancer patients included 4 patients in remission, 3 patients with locally advanced cancer, and 6 with metastatic disease. Mvs were isolated from peripheral blood, quantified by a protein concentration method, and their fibrinolytic potential was measured by their capacity to generate plasmin. Although the quantity of Mvs found in patients with cancer and healthy individuals was similar, plasmin generated on Mvs was twice the amount in patients with metastasis than in healthy women (P < 0.05), underlying the value of this distinctive parameter. The data suggest that in breast cancer patients, higher fibrinolytic activity of circulating Mvs could be related to progression and metastasis of breast cancer.
Pulmonary lymphoma is rare, accounting for < 1% of primary lung cancers. Most primary pulmonary lymphomas (PPL) are low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type, and among PPL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is extremely rare. In contrast, there has been an increase in the incidence of DLBCL among patients with autoimmune disorders and recurrent or chronic bacterial infection. A subset of DLBCL has been reported to develop through transformation of preexisting or concurrent MALT. The respiratory symptoms are non-specific, and the chest X-ray findings demonstrate the presence of interstitial and mixed alveolar infiltrates, nodular lesions, and localized homogeneous consolidations; the diagnosis of pulmonary DLBCL is thus challenging and often leads to a misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. We herein report a case of DLBCL which was assumed to have arisen from the lesion of chronic atelectasis that was successfully diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). A 74-year-old woman with diffuse bronchiectasis and chronic atelectasis of the left lower lobe suffered from productive cough and high fever. Increased airway filling with mucoid secretion was repeatedly observed within the area of atelectasis with bronchiectasis, and left lower lobe atelectasis developed. Subsequently, the hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes gradually became enlarged, and DLBCL was pathologically confirmed. In the present case, DLBCL was considered to have arisen in the lesion of chronic atelectasis. Physicians should recognize that DLBCL may develop at the site of chronic atelectasis during disease course of diffuse bronchiectasis, and thus DLBCL may be misdiagnosed as superimposed infection of chronic atelectasis.