体力科学
Online ISSN : 1881-4751
Print ISSN : 0039-906X
ISSN-L : 0039-906X
46 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の15件中1~15を表示しています
  • 1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 1-37
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 永松 俊哉, 荒尾 孝
    1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 39-47
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    運動前多食型 (BE) および運動後多食型 (AE) の食物摂取パターンが持久性の向上に有効か否かを明らかにすることを目的に, ラットを用いて低強度および高強度の急性運動を負荷した際の糖脂質代謝について検討した.
    (1) 運動前安静および対照安静のいずれの時点でも, 血漿FFAは自由摂食 (AD) 群に比較しBE群およびAE群で有意な低値を示し, 肝臓グリコーゲンはAD群およびBE群に比べてAE群で有意な高値を示した.
    (2) 低強度運動時には, 血漿FFAおよびグリセロールがAD群において運動前安静群に比較して運動群で有意な高値を示した.肝臓グリコーゲンは, AD群では運動前安静群に比較して運動群で有意な低値を示し, BE群では運動前安静群に比べて運動群で有意な高値を示した.一方, 肝臓グリコーゲンは運動後, AD群に比較してBE群およびAE群で有意な高値を示し, BE群に比較してAE群で有意な高値を示した.腓腹筋グリコーゲンは, AD群では運動前安静群に比較して運動群で有意な低値を示し, 運動後には, AD群およびBE群に比較してAE群で有意な高値を示した.
    (3) 高強度運動時には, AD群, BE群, およびAE群のいずれも血漿FFAおよびグリセロールが運動前安静群に比較して運動群で有意な高値を示した.運動負荷後の血漿FFAにおいては, AD群に比較してBE群およびAE群で有意な低値を示した.肝臓グリコーゲンは, AD群では運動前安静群に比較して運動群で有意な低値を示した.運動負荷後は, AD群に比較してBE群で有意な高値を示し, BE群に比較してAE群で有意な高値を示した.腓腹筋グリコーゲンに関しては, AD群, BE群, およびAE群のいずれも運動前安静群に比較して運動群で有意な低値を示した.
    以上より, 運動後多食型は, 運動開始時には自由摂食および運動前多食型に比較して, 肝臓グリコーゲン含量を高めることに極めて有効であるので持久的運動時の肝臓グリコーゲン消費節約が可能であり, 持久性の向上に有効であるものと推察された.
  • 矢野 博己, 木下 幸文, 矢野 里佐
    1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 49-54
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, we investigated the effect of acute exercise on the mitochondrial structure of hepatocytes surrounding the terminal hepatic venule (zone III) in the rat liver acinus. Male SD rats were assigned to a resting group (n=8) and to running groups ran on a motor-driven treadmill for 100 min (n = 8) or did continued running beyond 100 min until exhaustion (n = 5) . Plasma guanase activity was increased with duration time of exercise. The arterial ketone body rate (AKBR) increased during the 100 min of running, but the AKBR significantly diminished with exhaustive running as compared with that for 100 min of running. Although there was no change in the mitochondrial structure of hepatocytes in the perportal area (zone I) during exhaustion, remarkable swelling was observed in that in zone III.
    These results suggest that acute running affects mitochondrial structures in zone III, and that this might be a hypoxia zone during exercise.
  • 宮西 智久, 藤井 範久, 阿江 通良, 功力 靖雄, 岡田 守彦
    1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 55-67
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Twenty-four male university baseball players were each requested to throw a baseball, and filmed using the direct linear transformation method of three-dimensional (3D) videography. 3 D coordinates of landmarks were obtained. Resultant joint forces and resultant joint torques in the wrists, elbows, shoulders, neck, and upper torso joints were calculated using the inverse dynamics method. The mechanical powers caused by the resultant joint forces (joint force power) and by the resultant joint torques (joint torque power) of each segment were calculated, and the mechanical work was also obtained by integrating the joint torque powers with time. Peak values of energies of the upper torso, upper arm, forearm, hand, and ball appeared in sequence from the proximal segment to the distal segment. The joint force powers in any segment were markedly larger than the joint torque powers. Little joint torque power was produced in the wrist throughout the throwing motion. The negative joint force power and joint torque power at the proximal end of the upper torso were rapidly increased immediately after the foot contact stride. It was clarified that the appearance of the large energies in the distal throwing arm segments during the final phase of throwing motion were caused mainly by transfer of the energies produced by the motions of the torso and shoulder joints. This paper discusses the mechanical energy flows of the upper torso and upper limb segments during the motion of baseball throwing.
  • 真田 樹義, 朽木 勤, 江橋 博, 安部 孝, 福永 哲夫
    1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 69-76
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between muscle mass or muscle power and bone mineral density in 43 postmenopausal women. Single photon absorptiometry was used to measure the bone mineral density and bone width of the calcaneuse. Isotonic muscle power of knee extensions (KE), knee flexions and incline squats (ISQ) were measured, using the power processor (VINE Co., Ltd.) . Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) between bone mineral density and lean body mass or muscle thickness. Although, bone mineral density was not significantly correlated with body mass index or fat mass, it was significantly corre-lated with leg muscle power. Further, the bone mineral density was also positively correlated with muscle contraction speed in the motion of KE (p<0.01) and ISQ (p<0.05), but not with muscle strength. This data suggest that the bone mineral density is closely related to the muscle power and/or speed rather than the muscle strength in postmenopausal women.
  • 木内 敦詞, 七五三木 聡, 天貝 均, 大野 敦也, 勝田 茂
    1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 77-85
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究は, 閉経後骨粗鬆症の実験モデルとしてOVXラットを用い, OVX後の骨の変化を皮質骨と海綿骨の量的変化および組織学的特徴から検討し, これらが運動負荷によりいかなる影響を受けるかを調べたものである.実験にはWistar系雌性ラットを用い, 偽手術・コントロール群 (Sham-C群) , 偽手術・トレーニング群 (Sham-T群) , 卵巣摘出・コントロール群 (OVX-C群) , 卵巣摘出・トレーニング群 (OVX-T群) の計4群を設けた.卵巣摘出および偽手術は14週齢時に行い, トレーニングは17週齢より10週間のトレッドミル走とした.トレーニング期間終了時に, 脛骨を摘出後, 脱脂乾燥骨重量, 骨塩量を測定し, さらに海綿骨の組織形態計測を行った.
    得られた結果は以下のとおりである.
    1.脱脂乾燥骨重量および骨幹部骨塩量において, OVX-C群とSham-C群の有意な差異は認められなかった.しかし体重あたりの骨塩量ではOVX-C群がSham-C群に対し有意な低値を示した.また, 海綿骨の単位骨量ではOVX-C群がSham-C群よりも有意な低値を, LS/BSをはじめとする骨形成パラメータでは逆に有意な高値を示した.
    2.海綿骨単位骨量および体重あたりの骨塩量は, OVX-T群がOVX-C群に対し有意な高値を示した.骨形成パラメータでは両群に有意な差は認められなかった.
    3.上記のすべての測定パラメータで, Sham-C群とSham-T群の間に有意な差異は観察されなかった.
    以上の結果から, 運動は卵巣摘出による骨量の減少に対し抑制的に作用することが示された.また, これは骨形成の促進よりはむしろ骨吸収の抑制に起因する可能性が示唆された.
  • TAKEHISA YAMADA, IWAI TOHNAI, MINORU UEDA
    1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 87-92
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The use of mouth guards in contact sports effectively prevents oral injuries and preserves oral structures. Many contact sports in which a high impact collision could easily cause oral injury do not require athletes to use mouth guards. We discuss the circumstance of oral injury and awareness concerning the use of mouth guards in Japanese high school soccer and rugby and basketball teams.
    During an interview, each athlete was asked a series of questions concerning their history of oral injury while participating in sports and actual circumstances of using a mouth guard.
    The incidence of oral injuries was 32.3% in soccer, and 56.5% in rugby, 46.6% in basketball while 0.8% of athletes possessed some type of mouth guard in soccer, 24.1% in rugby and 1.3% in basketball. Although 81.8% of soccer athletes and 81.2% of basketball athletes thought mouth guards were unnecessary, only 26.2% of rugby athletes shared this opinion. Many athletes playing soccer and basketball had insufficient knowledge about mouth guards, and were not interested in preventing oral injury. Due to the diversity of sports that can produce oral injury, it is recommended that mouth guards be worn by all individuals participating in rugby, soccer and basketball.
  • 小原 繁, 林 美代子, 荒木 秀夫
    1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 93-100
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The response of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to pedalling exercise was studied in 32 healthy young men. The subjects performed the exercise at different intensities for 3 min using an incremental loading method. The first work load was 30W and increased by 30W until the heart rate (HR) reached about 170 bpm. SBP at HR 100. 160 bpm (SBP@HR 100-160) was calculated from the cubic regression equation in each subject. Mean SBP and SEM at HR 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160 were 143.9 (2.49), 152.9 (2.79), 161.6 (3.02), 170.0 (3.16), 177.8 (3.25), 184.5 (3.34), and 189.7 (3.45) mmHg, respectively. However, the rate of elevation of SBP was zero at HR 175 bpm, which was calculated from the cubic regression equation. This may indicate that SBP is inhibited by baroreceptors and other factors at HR above 170 bpm. There were no significant relationships between SBPs@HR 100-160 and indices of aerobic capacity such as maximal oxygen consumption or PWC 170. Double product (DP) as an index of oxygen consumption by cardiac muscle increased with HR without any reduction in its rate of elevation during exercise.
  • 木住野 孝子, 松田 光生
    1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 101-112
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to assess an alteration of cardiac autonomic nerve activity during water immersion. Ten healthy young males (age : 21-28 yr.) were immersed in water at the temperatures of 25°C, 30°C and 34°C. Subjects sat calmly for 20 minutes in sitting position before water immersion, and then were immersed in water at subaxillary level in sitting position for 15 minutes, performing controlled breathing (15 cycle/min.) . Electrocardiograms were recorded continuously. Autonomic nerve activity was estimated with the analysis of power spectral by using the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) . High (HF ; 0.15-0.50 Hz) and low (LF ; 0.04-0.15 Hz) frequency areas and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) were calculated as the indices of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity, sympathetic nerve activity with parasympathetic modulation, and sympathetic nerve activity, respectively. During the water immersion at 25°C, 30°C and 34°C, HF was significantly increased, while the heart rate and LF/HF were significantly decreased. There were no statistically significant differences among both of HF and LF/HF during the immersion at 25°C, 30°C and 34°C, although the rate of change in HF at the temperature of 25°C appeared to be prominent compared to those at 30°C and 34°C and some subjects showed an exaggerated change in HF immediately after immersion. These results suggest that cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity is enhanced and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity is suppressed during a short time water immersion at the thermo-neutral temperature (34°C) and the temperatures of 25°C and 30°C, which are the usual temperatures found in indoor pools.
  • 佐藤 靖丈, 丹羽 健市
    1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 113-121
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    運動時の飲水が発汗量に及ぼす影響を検討するために, 脱水状態及び種々の量の水分を補給しながら一定強度の運動を負荷し, その際の発汗量の相違ならびに体重減少率と体温上昇との関係及び飲水による体冷却効果から検討した.
    1.運動時の発汗量は運動開始前の脱水状態時, 運動時水分非補給時, 水分補給時にかかわらずほぼ一定値 (968~996g/hr) を示した.
    2.体重減少率は飲水量の増大に伴って有意に少ないが, 発汗量との間に有意な関係は認められなかった.
    3.運動時の直腸温は体重減少率の増大に伴って有意に上昇した.
    4.飲水による体冷却熱量は飲水量の増大に伴って増大し, 水分非補給時の貯熱量のほぼ13~45%の相当した.
  • 沢井 史穂, 吉岡 伸彦, 鶴見 幸子
    1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 123-134
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Aerobic dance (AD) is a form of fitness exercise whose program is constructed by a combination of various joint movements. Therefore the exercise is expected to give enough stimulus to not only the cardiorespiratory but also the musculoskeletal system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity level of the leg muscles among the major 22 AD leg movements, or steps (13 low-impact steps and high-impact steps), by electromyography (EMG) analysis. The subjects were two trained AD instructors, who were asked to perform individual steps at a pitch of 144 bpm. EMG data were recorded from the iliopsoas, gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles on the right side by means of surface electrodes. The half-wave of the raw EMG was rectified and integrated over periods of 20 s during the exercise. From the raw EMG data it was observed that the pattern and amplitude of the electrical discharge of each muscle varied in response to the difference in step motion. The integrated EMGs of the iliopsoas, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius tented to show higher values for high-impact steps in comparison with low-impact steps, but that of the tibialis anterior showed a contrary trend. The mean value and stan-dard deviation of iEMG of each muscle for the 22 steps was calculated for the same subjects, and the muscle activity level was classified into 5 degrees. Making use of this evaluation table, it may be possible to construct an AD program that can activate the leg muscles impartially.
  • 戸部 秀之, 田中 茂穂, 甲田 道子, 佐竹 隆, 服部 恒明
    1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 135-138
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 鈴木 政登
    1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 139-145
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 147-155
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1997 年 46 巻 1 号 p. 156-158
    発行日: 1997/02/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
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