The present study aimed to examine the effects of Internet addiction on daily steps. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Osaka Institute of Technology. A total of 334 male college freshmen were analyzed. The participants were assigned to five groups according to Internet addiction levels. Internet addiction levels were assessed by Diagnostic Questionnaire, which has been reported by Young (1998), and we measured daily steps of the participants using a pedometer during usual 1 week. There were no significant trends or differences among five groups in physical characteristics of the participants, sleep duration, frequency of eating breakfast, and walking during commute time. However, with the level of Internet addiction increasing, daily steps showed a statistically significant decreasing trend. Therefore, Internet addiction levels might be related to reductions in steps in a dose-response manner. To clarify this point, further investigations will be required after considering confounding factors.
Recent health guidelines suggest that children should accumulate 60 minutes of physical activity (PA) of moderate to vigorous intensity every day. The purpose of this study was to assess PA on weekdays, in addition to physical fitness, in elementary school children during short-term extracurricular activities (EA). Children from an elementary school (n=160) who carried out EA were assigned to the EA group, and children from the neighboring elementary school (n=210) comprised the non-EA group. A physical fitness test was applied to evaluate physical fitness in pupils. Moreover, 48 children (EA, n=24; non-EA, n=24) wore a pedometer with a uniaxial accelerometer to determine the amount of PA and time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA. The PA of EA was evaluated with the exception of the short program (10 min). Jogging distance of the EA was 1357 ± 333 m, average speed was 170 ± 42 m/min. The estimated energy consumption of jogging was 55 ± 19 kcal. Multiple items of the physical fitness test scored significantly higher in the EA group than in non-EA subjects. Total step counts were 15485 ± 1915 steps/day for the EA group and 12363 ± 2464 steps/day for the non-EA group on weekdays (p<0.001). Time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA on weekdays was 61.6 ± 10.0 min/day for EA children and 46.5 ± 12.9 min/day for non-EA children (p<0.001). In addition, the extent of PA in the EA group was higher than the amount recommended for children in general. This study suggested that short-term EA are related to both the fitness and PA levels of elementary school children.
Pitching motion is made up by three-dimensional whole body movement. Pelvic and trunk rotation movement is important for the prevention of throwing injuries. Throwing is not a simple rotation movement. Evaluation should reflect muscle strength, coordination, and pitching motion characteristics. We have devised throwing rotational assessment (TRA) similar to throwing as the new evaluation of total rotation angle required for throwing. The purpose of this study was to introduce the new method and to examine the characteristics of players with throwing disorders. The subjects were 76 high school baseball pitchers who participated in the medical check. Pain-induced tests were elbow hyperextension test and intra-articular shoulder impingement test. Pitchers who felt pain in either test were classified as disorder group. TRA evaluation was performed as follows. In the positions similar to the foot contact phase, rotation angles of the pelvis and trunk were measured. In the position similar to follow through phase, the distance between the middle finger and the second toe was measured. All tests were performed in the throwing and opposite direction. Twenty five pitchers were classified as disorder group. All TRA tests in healthy group were significantly higher in the throwing direction than in the opposite direction, but there was no significant difference in the disorder group. Disorder group had significantly lower average rotation angles of the pelvis and trunk in the throwing direction and rotation angle of trunk in the opposite direction than the healthy group. Restrictions on TRA reflecting the complex whole body rotation movement may be related to the throwing disorder. This evaluation is a simple method. It would be useful early detection of throwing disorder and systematic evaluation in medical check, as well as self-check in the sports field.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of sit to stand exercise using a video game. Twelve young male adults performed sit to stand exercise with a video game and without a video game. Heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2), electromyogram of lower limbs (%MVC) and perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during exercise. Mood states (POMS) were measured before and after exercise. There were no significant differences in physiological measurements between the two conditions. On the other hand, depression scale was significantly decreased after exercise only in the game condition. These results suggest that sit to stand exercise with a video game may have positive psychological effects without change in physiological load compared to the same exercise without a video game.
Interval training has a beneficial effect for treating the cardiovascular disease. However, it is not clarify the effects of different exercise intensity and duration on arterial function. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of acute short-term high and moderate-intensity interval exercise on pulse wave velocity. Thirteen healthy men were randomly assigned to perform both acute interval exercise (IE; cycling for 24.6 min at 80%VO2max and 50%VO2max) and acute continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME; cycling for 30 min at 50%VO2max). The IE and CME protocols were designed such that the exercises resulted in the same workload during each session. The brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and brachial to ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were obtained in the supine position using an automatic pulse wave form analyzer at pre- and post-exercise. In IE, baPWV at post-exercise decreased significantly compared with pre-exercise value (1181.9±119.2 cm・sec-1 vs. 1108.4±109.4 cm・sec-1, p<0.01). In CME, however, it was not significantly different between pre- and post-exercise values (1173.5±137.1 cm・sec-1 vs. 1164.8±96.0 cm・sec-1, p=ns). No significant differences in SBP and DBP were found both protocols. These results suggest that acute short-term high and moderate-intensity interval exercise was more effective in reducing baPWV compared with acute continuous exercise.