体力科学
Online ISSN : 1881-4751
Print ISSN : 0039-906X
ISSN-L : 0039-906X
51 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
  • 李 虎城, 向井 直樹, 秋本 崇之, 河野 一郎
    2002 年 51 巻 2 号 p. 175-183
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Objective] The purpose of this study was to determine whether icing treatment has an effect on muscle reaction time and functional performance of a sprained ankle. [Methods] Subjects were six persons (healthy group) and six persons who had an acute ankle sprain (patient group) . Anterior talar translation and talar tilt of the six patient group were evaluated by the stress X-ray measure. Ice treatment was applied for 20 minutes. [Results] The following points were clarified : 1) Reaction times of peroneus longus (PL) and peroneus brevis (PB) for the sprained ankle group (SA) were significantly longer than those for the non-sprained ankle group (NA) (p<0.05) . Length of time of standing on one leg with closed eyes for SA was significantly shorter than for NA (p<0.05) . 2) After icing treatment, reaction time of PL for SA tended to be shorter. Furthermore, PB significantly decreased after icing treatment (p<0.05) . Side-steps for SA were significantly increased after icing treatment (p<0.05) . 3) Reaction times of PL and PB for NA significantly increased after icing treatment (p<0.05) . Standing on one leg with closed eyes for NA significantly decreased after icing treatment (p<0.05) . [Conclusion] It was shown that icing treatment of a sprained ankle leads to a shorter muscle reaction time and an increase in the number of side-steps. Therefore, it was concluded that icing treatment of a sprained ankle might be able to improve incapacitated neuromuscular function and functional performance by acute trauma.
  • 山口 英峰, 山元 健太, 枝松 千尋, 早田 剛, 宮川 健, 小野寺 昇
    2002 年 51 巻 2 号 p. 185-192
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of different frequencies of skipping rope on the elastic components of muscle and tendon in human triceps surae. Six male subjects performed ten rounds of skipping rope. Skipping tempos were with in a range of 100-170 skips per minute (SPM) . The vertical ground reaction force and the surface EMG of triceps surae muscles were recorded during each skipping round. Elastic components of muscle and tendon were estimated by Residual Time (RT : lag time difference between the vanishing point of muscle discharge and disappearance of EMG, and the end of the ground reaction force wave) and RTintegrate (integration of ground reaction force while RT still appears) . RT and RTintegrate at 100 SPM were the smallest values for all jump frequencies. On the other hand, integrated EMG (iEMG) at 100 SPM was the largest value for all jump frequencies. Although RT and RTintegrateprogressively increased as SPM was increased, iEMG correspondingly decreased. Rate in utilization of elastic components of muscle and tendon assessed by RTintegrateat 170 SPM corresponds to 150% at 100 SPM. These results suggest that the rate in utilization of the elastic components of muscle and tendon while skipping rope, depend on jump frequency.
  • 岩本 陽子, 久保 潤二郎, 伊藤 雅充, 竹宮 隆, 浅見 俊雄
    2002 年 51 巻 2 号 p. 193-201
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究では月経周期に伴うMVCの変動とその要因を検討した.MVCは月経期, 黄体期に比べて排卵期で有意に増大した.iEMGと随意活性水準で評価した神経系の活動は月経周期に伴う有意な変動がみられなかった.つまり神経系の興奮水準は月経周期で一定であり, 筋力発揮の効率 (Mvc/iEMG) が排卵期で有意に高値を示した.POMSを用いて評価した心理的コンディションは月経期に悪化し, 排卵期では比較的良い状態であった.従って, 心理的コンディションは月経周期に伴い変動するが, その変動は神経系の活動には大きな影響を及ぼすものではなかったといえる.筋収縮特性に関しては, TPTと1/2RTには月経周期に伴う変動はみられなかったが, 誘発トルクはMVCと同様, 月経期, 黄体期に比べて排卵期で有意に増大した.上腕周径囲と上腕二頭筋厚は, 月経周期に伴う変動はみられず, 横断面積などの筋形状は月経周期中に変化していなかったと推察される.以上の結果より, 排卵期でのMVCの増加は筋細胞内の力産生能の変化によるものと考えられ, 各ホルモンと筋収縮特性の関わりについてさらなる検討の必要性が示唆された.
  • 松嵜 裕美, 矢野 博己
    2002 年 51 巻 2 号 p. 203-209
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    In previous studies, acute exercise might induce inflammatory cytokines from immunological cells, but it was not clear that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α in the liver was induced by acute exercise. In this study, we first measured the changes from acute exercise in plasma TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon (IFN) -γ and prostaglandin (PG) E2 ; from and investigated the effect of acute exercise on TNF-α expression in the liver. Then we examined the response of TNF-α to PGE2 in isolated Kupffer cells. Female Fischer 344 rats were run on a treadmill at 21 m/min for 60 min on a 15% grade. Although the portal venous plasma endotoxin concentration in the exercised group was higher than that in the resting group, plasma TNF-α was not detected in either group. In addition, plasma IFN-γ, which accelerates TNF-α production, was not detected. TNF-α mRNA expression in the liver didn't change significantly. On the other hand, plasma PGE2, which is an inhibitor of TNF-α production, markedly increased immediately after the exercise. In addition, PGE2 inhibited TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated Kupffer cells in in vitro. These results sug gest that LPS-induced TNF-α expression in rat liver is inhibited by an increase of PGE2 during acute exercise.
  • 中村 容一, 田中 喜代次, 重松 良祐, 中垣内 真樹, 蒲原 一之, 井上 雅樹
    2002 年 51 巻 2 号 p. 211-224
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a common therapy for improving both exercise tolerance and quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) . Although exercise is an important rehabilitation strategy, walking, treadmill use, bicycling and respiratory muscle training can be monotonous. A comprehensive exercise program that includes recreational activities may be a more effective means to decrease the occurrence of dyspnea during daily activities and improve QoL in patients with COPD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of our exercise therapy, including recreational activities and respiratory muscle training, on dyspnea and health related QoL (HRQL) in COPD patients. Thirty-eight male patients with COPD were randomly assigned to a control (C) (70.1±6.4yr) (n=12) . pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) (70.3±8.3yr) (n= 16), or exercise (EX) (68.7±4.6yr) (n=10) group. The following evaluations were performed at baseline and at 8 weeks: (1) cycle ergometer test ; (2) 6-min walking distance : (3) physical fitness (4) pulmonary function ; (5) dyspnea : and (6) HRQoL (SF-36) . The C group showed no significant changes in physical fitness, pulmonary function, dyspnea, and HRQoL scores throughout the observation period. There was a significant (P<0.05) improvement in 6-min walking distance. physical fit-ness, maximum rnspiratory pressure (MIP), and HRQoL for the PR group. The EX group demons-trated a significant (P<0.05) improvement in physical fitness, maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), dyspnea, and HRQoL. Moreover, the degree of improvement in each variable was greater for EX than for PR. There were significant (P<0.05) correlations between MIP and FEV1.0 (r=0.65), and between MEP and FEV1.0 (r=0.43) . Based on these results, it appears that our comprehensive exercise program, including recreational activities and respiratory muscle training, improves physical fitness, pulmonary function, dyspnea, and quality of life in COPD patients.
  • YUKARI KAWANO, AKIKO TOKASHIKI, YUKO MEKATA, KEIKO HAYASHI, HARUMI MAT ...
    2002 年 51 巻 2 号 p. 225-234
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Objectives : The present study investigates the effects of body iron stores upon indices of biosynthesis and destruction of red blood cells (RBC) induced by a single session of cycling exercise.
    Design : Eight sedentary female students were divided into groups depending on their body iron stores : normal (C group, n=5) and iron deficient (D group, n=3) . Blood samples were collected at five time points of before (pre), immediately after (0 hours), then 1, 3 and 6 hours after exercise (248±31 kcal, 70% V02 peak level) . Osmotic fragility and serum haptoglobin (hp) concentration served as of for degradation, and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD) activity, erythropoietin concentration and number of reticulocytes served as indices of RBC biosynthesis.
    Results : A single session of cycling exercise did not affect the level of RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, hp and osmotic fragility in either groups. The δ-ALAD activity increased at 3 (p<0.05) and 6 hours (p<0.01) after exercise compared with that at 0 hours in the C group. In contrast, δ -ALAD activity in the D group was significantly lower at 3 hours after exercise than that of C group (p<0.001) . Reticulocytes and erythropoietin concentration increased gradually in the C group after exercise, but not in the D group.
    Conclusions : A single session of cycling exercise under our experimental conditions enhanced RBC biosynthesis indicated by δ -ALAD activity, whereas exercise-induced hemolysis was not evident. Body iron stores affect the δ -ALAD activity induced by a single bout of cycling exercise.
  • 井上 芳光, 米浪 直子, 小倉 幸雄, 久保田 豊司, 芳田 哲也, 中井 誠一
    2002 年 51 巻 2 号 p. 235-243
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究では, 夏季スポーツ活動時における子ども (少年野球・ミニバスケットボール) , 若年成人 (女子ソフトボール・男子野球) , 高齢者 (ゲートボール) の発汗率 (TSR: g/m2/h) ・体重あたりの発汗量 (%TSL) ・水分補給率 (総発汗量あたりの水分補給量: %FIV) を調査し, それらの年齢差, 子どもにおける性差および種目間差 (屋内種目VS.屋外種目) , 飲料差 (スポーツ飲料VS.お茶) をそれぞれ検討した.なお, いずれの場合も水分補給は自由摂取とした.子どものバスケットボールにおいて, TSR, %TSL, %FIVには有意な性差はみられなかった.少年野球時のTSRおよび%TSLは, 高いWBGTに起因してバスケットボール時より有意に高かったが, %FIVには有意な種目間差は認められなかった.なお, 少年野球時のTSRはほぼ400g/m2/hに達し, 先行研究で報告されているその最大値に相当した.スポーツ飲料を補給した場合, 子どもの%FIVは両種目ともほぼ100%であり, %TSLが同等であった若年成人より有意に高かった.子どもの%FIVはスポーツ飲料摂取時がお茶摂取時より有意に高かったが, 若年成人の%FIVには飲水物の影響はみられなかった.高齢者のTSR, %TSL, %FIVは, 若年成人や子どもより有意に低かった.これらの結果は, 夏季スポーツ活動時において, 子どもにスポーツ飲料を自由摂取させれば, 性・環境温度に関わらず, 自発的脱水を予防できることが示唆された.しかし, 子どもの炎天下スポーツ活動時の発汗率が先行研究で報告されている最大発汗率に相当したことから, 深部体温がかなり上昇していることが推測され, 夏季スポーツ活動時には熱中症予防に向けた積極的休息, 練習時間の短縮, 運動強度の軽減の必要性がうかがえた.高齢者はスポーツ活動時の水分補給率が低いことから, 積極的な水分補給を奨励することが熱中症予防に重要であることが示唆された.
  • 田井中 幸司, 青木 純一郎
    2002 年 51 巻 2 号 p. 245-251
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    70~80歳代の自立している高齢女性62名 (80.4±4.0歳) を対象に, 歩行速度の低下の実態を明らかにし, その原因となる体力要因について検討した.歩行速度は, 10mの直線コースにおける「普通」および「最大」の2条件について評価した.また, 歩行速度の低下に特に影響を与えると考えられる筋力 (股関節の伸展・外転, 膝関節の伸展および足関節の底屈に関する等速性筋力) について測定を行った.
    普通および最大歩行速度は膝伸展等速性筋力をはじめ, 股関節や足関節の筋力との正の相関関係 (普通: r=0.596~0.666, p<0.01, 最大: r=0.623~0.727, p<0.01) が高く, 普通および最大歩行速度の低下には下肢の筋力の衰退が強く影響していることが推察された.
    2条件の歩行別に, 下肢の各筋力と歩行速度との関係を見たところ, 歩行速度の低下傾向には筋力水準の低い集団の方が筋力の衰退に伴う速度低下の勾配が大きい傾向にあった.そこで, 筋力水準の高低により2群に分けて, 歩行速度の低下に影響を及ぼす他の体力要因 (柔軟性: 股関節の伸展・屈曲・外転, 膝関節の伸展・屈曲および足関節の底屈・背屈の関節可動域, 敏捷性: 全身反応時間および平衡性: 開眼片足立ち) についても測定し, 分析した結果, 歩行速度に対する相関関係は, 筋力の「高い」群においては下肢筋力が, また「低い」群では神経反応時間がそれぞれ最も強かった.
    以上の結果から, 高齢女性における歩行速度の低下は下肢筋力の衰退が主因であるが, 筋力水準が比較的低く歩行速度の遅い高齢者においては, 神経系の機能低下がもたらす歩行動作の調節および反応の遅延ならびに筋力の減退が歩行速度を一層減速させることが示唆された.
  • 2002 年 51 巻 2 号 p. 253-262
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
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