[Objective] The purpose of this study was to determine whether icing treatment has an effect on muscle reaction time and functional performance of a sprained ankle. [Methods] Subjects were six persons (healthy group) and six persons who had an acute ankle sprain (patient group) . Anterior talar translation and talar tilt of the six patient group were evaluated by the stress X-ray measure. Ice treatment was applied for 20 minutes. [Results] The following points were clarified : 1) Reaction times of peroneus longus (PL) and peroneus brevis (PB) for the sprained ankle group (SA) were significantly longer than those for the non-sprained ankle group (NA) (p<0.05) . Length of time of standing on one leg with closed eyes for SA was significantly shorter than for NA (p<0.05) . 2) After icing treatment, reaction time of PL for SA tended to be shorter. Furthermore, PB significantly decreased after icing treatment (p<0.05) . Side-steps for SA were significantly increased after icing treatment (p<0.05) . 3) Reaction times of PL and PB for NA significantly increased after icing treatment (p<0.05) . Standing on one leg with closed eyes for NA significantly decreased after icing treatment (p<0.05) . [Conclusion] It was shown that icing treatment of a sprained ankle leads to a shorter muscle reaction time and an increase in the number of side-steps. Therefore, it was concluded that icing treatment of a sprained ankle might be able to improve incapacitated neuromuscular function and functional performance by acute trauma.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of different frequencies of skipping rope on the elastic components of muscle and tendon in human triceps surae. Six male subjects performed ten rounds of skipping rope. Skipping tempos were with in a range of 100-170 skips per minute (SPM) . The vertical ground reaction force and the surface EMG of triceps surae muscles were recorded during each skipping round. Elastic components of muscle and tendon were estimated by Residual Time (RT : lag time difference between the vanishing point of muscle discharge and disappearance of EMG, and the end of the ground reaction force wave) and RTintegrate (integration of ground reaction force while RT still appears) . RT and RTintegrate at 100 SPM were the smallest values for all jump frequencies. On the other hand, integrated EMG (iEMG) at 100 SPM was the largest value for all jump frequencies. Although RT and RTintegrateprogressively increased as SPM was increased, iEMG correspondingly decreased. Rate in utilization of elastic components of muscle and tendon assessed by RTintegrateat 170 SPM corresponds to 150% at 100 SPM. These results suggest that the rate in utilization of the elastic components of muscle and tendon while skipping rope, depend on jump frequency.
In previous studies, acute exercise might induce inflammatory cytokines from immunological cells, but it was not clear that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α in the liver was induced by acute exercise. In this study, we first measured the changes from acute exercise in plasma TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon (IFN) -γ and prostaglandin (PG) E2 ; from and investigated the effect of acute exercise on TNF-α expression in the liver. Then we examined the response of TNF-α to PGE2 in isolated Kupffer cells. Female Fischer 344 rats were run on a treadmill at 21 m/min for 60 min on a 15% grade. Although the portal venous plasma endotoxin concentration in the exercised group was higher than that in the resting group, plasma TNF-α was not detected in either group. In addition, plasma IFN-γ, which accelerates TNF-α production, was not detected. TNF-α mRNA expression in the liver didn't change significantly. On the other hand, plasma PGE2, which is an inhibitor of TNF-α production, markedly increased immediately after the exercise. In addition, PGE2 inhibited TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated Kupffer cells in in vitro. These results sug gest that LPS-induced TNF-α expression in rat liver is inhibited by an increase of PGE2 during acute exercise.
Pulmonary rehabilitation is a common therapy for improving both exercise tolerance and quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) . Although exercise is an important rehabilitation strategy, walking, treadmill use, bicycling and respiratory muscle training can be monotonous. A comprehensive exercise program that includes recreational activities may be a more effective means to decrease the occurrence of dyspnea during daily activities and improve QoL in patients with COPD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of our exercise therapy, including recreational activities and respiratory muscle training, on dyspnea and health related QoL (HRQL) in COPD patients. Thirty-eight male patients with COPD were randomly assigned to a control (C) (70.1±6.4yr) (n=12) . pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) (70.3±8.3yr) (n= 16), or exercise (EX) (68.7±4.6yr) (n=10) group. The following evaluations were performed at baseline and at 8 weeks: (1) cycle ergometer test ; (2) 6-min walking distance : (3) physical fitness (4) pulmonary function ; (5) dyspnea : and (6) HRQoL (SF-36) . The C group showed no significant changes in physical fitness, pulmonary function, dyspnea, and HRQoL scores throughout the observation period. There was a significant (P<0.05) improvement in 6-min walking distance. physical fit-ness, maximum rnspiratory pressure (MIP), and HRQoL for the PR group. The EX group demons-trated a significant (P<0.05) improvement in physical fitness, maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), dyspnea, and HRQoL. Moreover, the degree of improvement in each variable was greater for EX than for PR. There were significant (P<0.05) correlations between MIP and FEV1.0 (r=0.65), and between MEP and FEV1.0 (r=0.43) . Based on these results, it appears that our comprehensive exercise program, including recreational activities and respiratory muscle training, improves physical fitness, pulmonary function, dyspnea, and quality of life in COPD patients.
Objectives : The present study investigates the effects of body iron stores upon indices of biosynthesis and destruction of red blood cells (RBC) induced by a single session of cycling exercise. Design : Eight sedentary female students were divided into groups depending on their body iron stores : normal (C group, n=5) and iron deficient (D group, n=3) . Blood samples were collected at five time points of before (pre), immediately after (0 hours), then 1, 3 and 6 hours after exercise (248±31 kcal, 70% V02 peak level) . Osmotic fragility and serum haptoglobin (hp) concentration served as of for degradation, and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD) activity, erythropoietin concentration and number of reticulocytes served as indices of RBC biosynthesis. Results : A single session of cycling exercise did not affect the level of RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, hp and osmotic fragility in either groups. The δ-ALAD activity increased at 3 (p<0.05) and 6 hours (p<0.01) after exercise compared with that at 0 hours in the C group. In contrast, δ -ALAD activity in the D group was significantly lower at 3 hours after exercise than that of C group (p<0.001) . Reticulocytes and erythropoietin concentration increased gradually in the C group after exercise, but not in the D group. Conclusions : A single session of cycling exercise under our experimental conditions enhanced RBC biosynthesis indicated by δ -ALAD activity, whereas exercise-induced hemolysis was not evident. Body iron stores affect the δ -ALAD activity induced by a single bout of cycling exercise.